Average weight loss on garcinia cambogia

Average weight loss on garcinia cambogia
In the world of natural weight loss solutions, no other name surpasses garcinia cambogia as the most recommended and most effective natural weight loss supplement in the market.

Garcinia Cambogia: Safe for Weight Loss?

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Garcinia cambogia, a tropical fruit also known as the Malabar tamarind, is a popular weight-loss supplement. People say it blocks your body's ability to make fat and it puts the brakes on your appetite. It could help keep blood sugar and cholesterol levels in check, too. You'll find it in bottles on the shelf at the store as well as mixed with other ingredients in diet products.

Does it live up to its hype? Maybe a little, but it might not be worth it.

How It Works

The active ingredient in the fruit's rind, hydroxycitric acid, or HCA, has boosted fat-burning and cut back appetite in studies. It appears to block an enzyme called citrate lyase, which your body uses to make fat. It also raises levels of the brain chemical serotonin, which may make you feel less hungry.

But actual weight loss results aren't impressive. A review published in the Journal of Obesityfound that people who took garcinia cambogia in studies lost about 2 pounds more than people who didn't take it. The reviewers couldn't say for sure that the weight loss was because of the supplement. It could have been from the lower-calorie diet and exercise programs the people in the studies typically followed. Better studies are needed to find out if HCA really helps people lose a lot of weight and keep it off.

Type 2 Diabetes and High Cholesterol

Garcinia cambogia may make it easier for your body to use glucose, the sugar your cells need for energy. Mice that got garcinia cambogia in one study had lower insulin levels than mice that didn't. That's another reason, besides weight loss, that people with diabetes are interested in it. However, if you're taking garcinia cambogia along with a medication to control your blood sugar, your glucose could get dangerously low.

Some research has found that garcinia cambogia can also improve cholesterol levels, lowering triglycerides and LDL (the "bad" cholesterol) and raising HDL (the "good" cholesterol). But you shouldn't use it if you're already on a prescription for your cholesterol.

Possible Side Effects

When you take garcinia cambogia, you might get:

In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration warned everyone to stop using a weight-loss product that contained garcinia cambogia because some people taking it got serious liver problems. The product had other ingredients, too, so it's not clear that garcinia cambogia was to blame. While some research suggests the supplement is safe for your liver, other research says no.

Garcinia cambogia may interact badly with:

You definitely don't want to use it when you're pregnant or nursing, or if you have kidney or liver problems. It is possible that manic symptoms may emerge as a side effect.

To Buy or Not to Buy

Since study results are mixed, you should talk with your doctor to help you decide if taking garcinia cambogia is a good idea. Even if it's safe, it may not help you lose much weight. It's probably wiser to spend your money on healthy food or an exercise DVD.

Onakpoya, I. Journal of Obesity, 2011.

NYU Langone Medical Center: "Weight Loss Aids."

Byrne, S. Consumer Reports, March 24, 2014.

Wielinga, P.Y. American Journal of Physiology, June 1, 2005.

Leonhardt, M. Nutrition, October 2004.

Hayamizu, K. Fitoterapia, April 2003.

Preuss, H. Nutrition Research, January 2004.

Preuss, H. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, May 2004.

Preuss, H. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research, February 2005.

Drugs.com: "Garcinia (hydroxycitric acid)."

Kim, Y. World Journal of Gastroenterology, Aug. 7, 2013.

Stohs, S. Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, November 2010.

Clouatre, D. World Journal of Gastroenterology, Nov. 28, 2013.

Marquez, F. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Issue 7, 2012.

Medscape: "Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists."

How Garcinia Cambogia Can Help You Lose Weight and Belly Fat

Garcinia cambogia is a popular weight loss supplement.

It is derived from a fruit of the same name, also called Garcinia gummi-gutta or Malabar tamarind.

The peel of the fruit contains high amounts of hydroxycitric acid (HCA), which is the active ingredient believed to be responsible for most of the weight loss benefits ( 1).

This article is a detailed review of garcinia cambogia and whether it is something you should take in order to lose weight.

Garcinia gummi-gutta is a small, pumpkin-shaped, yellow or greenish fruit.

The fruit is so sour that it is generally not eaten fresh, but rather used for its sour flavor in cooking ( 2).

Garcinia cambogia supplements are made from extracts of the fruit's peel.

The peel of the fruit contains high amounts of hydroxycitric acid (HCA), an active substance that has been shown to have some weight loss properties ( 3, 4, 5).

The supplements generally contain 20–60% HCA.

Thanks for a diet pill that actually works!😁💕" *Results in Testimonials are atypical and individual results may vary.

Nevertheless, studies show that those with 50–60% HCA may provide the most benefit ( 2).

Bottom Line: Garcinia cambogia supplements are made from extracts of the peel of the Garcinia gummi-gutta fruit. They contain high amounts of hydroxycitric acid (HCA), which has been linked with weight loss benefits.

Many high-quality human studies have tested the weight loss effects of garcinia cambogia.

What's more, most of them show that the supplement can cause a small amount of weight loss ( 3, 6).

This graph summarizes the weight loss results from nine studies on garcinia cambogia ( 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14):

The blue bars show the results from the supplement groups, while the orange bars show the results of placebo groups.

On average, garcinia cambogia has been shown to cause weight loss of about 2 pounds (0.88 kg) more than a placebo, over a period of 2–12 weeks ( 3, 15).

That said, several studies have not found any weight loss advantage ( 9, 11, 16).

For example, the largest individual study, which tested 135 participants over 12 weeks, did not find any difference in weight loss between the group that took garcinia cambogia and the group that took the placebo ( 9).

As you can see, the evidence is mixed. Garcinia cambogia supplements can produce modest weight loss in some people, but their effectiveness cannot be guaranteed.

Bottom Line: Some studies have found that garcinia cambogia causes modest weight loss, while other studies report no noticeable effects.

There are two main ways garcinia cambogia is thought to help with weight loss.

1. It May Reduce Your Appetite

Studies in rats have shown that those given garcinia cambogia supplements tend to eat less ( 17, 18).

Similarly, some human studies have shown that garcinia cambogia is able to suppress appetite and make you feel full ( 5, 13, 14, 19, 20).

How it reduces appetite isn't fully known, but rat studies have suggested that the active ingredient in garcinia cambogia can increase serotonin in the brain ( 5, 21).

Theoretically speaking, since serotonin is a known appetite suppressant, higher blood levels of serotonin could reduce your appetite ( 22).

However, these results need to be taken with a grain of salt. Other studies have found no difference in appetite between groups taking this supplement and those taking a placebo ( 10, 11, 12, 23).

It may be that these effects depend on the individual.

Bottom Line: Some studies suggest that garcinia cambogia can suppress appetite by inhibiting serotonin uptake in the brain, while other studies have found no effects on appetite or hunger.

2. It May Block Fat Production and Reduce Belly Fat

The most important activity of garcinia cambogia is probably its effects on blood fats and the production of new fatty acids.

Studies in humans and animals have shown it may lower high levels of fat in the blood and reduce oxidative stress in the body ( 24, 25, 26, 27, 28).

One study also suggests it may be especially effective at reducing the accumulation of belly fat in overweight people ( 8).

Another study gave moderately obese individuals 2,800 mg of garcinia cambogia daily for eight weeks ( 14).

By the end of the study, the group had drastically reduced several risk factors for disease:

The main reason for these effects is thought to be that garcinia cambogia inhibits an enzyme called citrate lyase, which plays an important role in the production of fat ( 2, 29, 30, 31, 32).

By inhibiting citrate lyase, garcinia cambogia is thought to slow down or block fat production in the body. This may reduce blood fats and lower the risk of weight gain, two major disease risk factors ( 33).

Bottom Line: Garcinia cambogia blocks the production of new fats in the body, and has been shown to lower cholesterol levels and blood triglycerides in overweight people.

Animal and test-tube studies suggest that garcinia cambogia may also have some anti-diabetic effects, including ( 2, 14, 34):

  • Decreasing insulin levels
  • Decreasing leptin levels
  • Reducing inflammation
  • Improving blood sugar control
  • Increasing insulin sensitivity

Garcinia cambogia may also have benefits for the digestive system. Animal studies have suggested it helps protect against stomach ulcers and reduce damage to the inner lining of the digestive tract ( 35, 36).

However, these effects need to be studied further before firm conclusions can be drawn.

Bottom Line: Garcinia cambogia may have some anti-diabetic effects and may also help protect against stomach ulcers and damage to the digestive tract.

Most studies have concluded that garcinia cambogia is safe for healthy people in the recommended dosages, or up to 2,800 mg of HCA per day ( 37, 38, 39, 40).

That said, supplements are not regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

That means there's no guarantee that the actual content of HCA in your supplements will match the HCA content on the label.

Therefore, make sure to buy from a reputable manufacturer.

People have also reported some side effects of using garcinia cambogia.

For centuries, Garcinia Cambogia has been used in many different cultures to suppress appetite.

30 The utilization of respiratory gases was reduced for mice treated with HCA at rest and during exercise.

The most common ones are ( 3, 9):

However, some studies have indicated more serious side effects.

Animal studies have shown that a very high intake of garcinia cambogia can cause testicular atrophy — shrinking of the testicles. Studies in rats have shown it may also affect sperm production ( 38, 41, 42).

Additionally, there is one report of a woman who developed serotonin toxicity as a result of taking garcinia cambogia with her anti-depressant medications ( 43).

If you have a medical condition or are taking any medications, consult your doctor before you start taking the supplement.

Bottom Line: Some people experience digestive symptoms, headaches and skin rashes when taking garcinia cambogia. Animal studies suggest that a very high intake may cause toxicity.

Many health food stores and pharmacies offer several varieties of garcinia cambogia.

Choose one from a reputable manufacturer that contains 50–60% hydroxycitric acid (HCA).

Recommended dosages can vary between brands. Generally, it is recommended to take 500 mg, three times per day, 30–60 minutes before meals.

It is always best to follow the dosage instructions on the label.

Studies have only tested these supplements for up to 12 weeks at a time. Therefore, it may be a good idea to take a few weeks off every three months or so.

Bottom Line: Look for a supplement that contains 50–60% HCA and is made by a reputable manufacturer. Follow the dosage instructions on the label.

Existing studies don't agree on the effectiveness of garcinia cambogia for weight loss.

Some studies show it may cause slightly more weight loss than not taking any supplement. This effect is not confirmed, but it is promising.

The positive effects of garcinia cambogia on blood fats may be where this supplement really shines.

An evidence-based nutrition article from our experts at Authority Nutrition.

Garcinia Cambogia – Hydroxycitric Acid Extract For Weight Loss?

Up until October 28th, 2012, few people around the world knew about ‘garcinia cambogia' and would have lost first round of a national spelling bee if asked what it was. But thankfully there is always hope for tomorrow, and for garcinia, the future would get much brighter.

Remembering the day so clearly, being October 29, 2012 – when Doctor OZ's Garcinia Cambogia extract episode airing for no more than 6 minutes became a world-wide sensation and phenom in a matter of New-York marketing minutes – fast forward from Oct 28 to Oct 29 to 2017; this is our assembled garcinia story of facts, figures and semi-unfortunate fallacies surrounding the most popular diet pill, phrase and product ever created…

Origins Of Garcinia (Malabar Tamarind/Gummi-Gutta)

Garcinia Cambogia is one of the most controversial dietary nutrition supplements in the world today. Some people swear a pure extract of Garcinia Cambogia is an extremely effective weight loss tool and appetite suppressant – and others, not so much reporting negative side effects galore like dry mouth, dizziness, toxicity and stomach aches – but for us, no matter where on the scale of effectiveness and results, it was only the start of the surface level conversation as most of hard to swallow at face value heresay is based on a 5 to 6 minute video clip produced by Dr Oz TV Show (much like forskolin).

So what’s the real one-size-fits-all truth about Garcinia Cambogia HCA extract and its potential weight loss qualities? What does science have to say about this unique malabar tamarind tropical plant?

Today, we’re going to round up every updated 2016 and 2017 credible medical science resource we can find has to say about the facts vs fiction of garcinia cambogia extract for weight loss and natural appetite suppressant.

What is Garcinia Cambogia?

Although the term “Garcinia cambogia” is no longer used by the scientific community, it’s the primary term used by the nutritional supplement community. Other names for this fruit include brindleberry, Malabar tamarind, and kudam puli.

The Garcinia cambogia fruit itself looks like a small pumpkin. It typically features a greenish, pale yellow color and has wrinkled, grooved skin. In terms of size, it’s somewhere between an orange and grapefruit.

Today, Garcinia cambogia is grown for its fruit in tropical climates around the world, including Southeast Asia, south India, and west and central Africa. That fruit is used in cooking and is especially popular in curries.

History of Garcinia Cambogia

Garcinia cambogia is a relatively new trend in the dietary supplement community. However, it’s been well-known in the traditional medicine community for quite some time.

For thousands of years, Garcinia cambogia remained relatively unknown.

Many mechanisms of ethanol-induced fatty liver have been proposed.

But in 2012, the trajectory of Garcinia cambogia changed forever when world-famous TV personality Dr. Oz claimed that Garcinia cambogia could be used for natural weight loss with “no diet or exercise” required.

Since 2012, a number of scientific reports have been published examining the effectiveness of Garcinia cambogia and its rumored health benefits.

The weight loss claims of Garcinia cambogia have faced a lot of criticism, and we’ll take a look at the rumored weight loss benefits of Garcinia cambogia below.

Health Benefits of Garcinia Cambogia

Those who support Garcinia cambogia claim that it has been linked to a number of powerful health benefits.

Now, there are two different types of health benefits of Garcinia cambogia.

However, many of the weight loss benefits of Garcinia cambogia are said to come from the rind of the fruit, which contains a compound called hydroxycitric acid (HCA).

Ultimately, the rumored health benefits of garcinia cambogia include:

  • Weight Loss
  • Appetite Suppression
  • Reduced Risk Of Heart Disease And Better Cardiovascular Health
  • Reduced Risk Of Diabetes
  • Reduced Fat Buildup And Reduced Abdominal Fat
  • Better Metabolism
  • Reduced Risk Of Ulcers
  • Healthier Digestion

These are the rumored health benefits of Garcinia cambogia. Below, we’ll see if any of those health benefits come with real scientific evidence.

Scientific Evidence for Garcinia Cambogia

Garcinia cambogia hasn’t been extensively studied. However, the studies on Garcinia cambogia that have been published have demonstrated mixed results. Instead of telling you whether or not Garcinia cambogia works, I’m going to summarize the scientific studies on Garcinia cambogia below:

In 1998, a study was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. This study was published in response to a flurry of promising reports on HCA, the active ingredient in Garcinia cambogia.

Unfortunately for HCA supporters, the 1998 study showed that “Garcinia cambogia failed to produce significant weight loss and fat mass loss beyond that observed with placebo.” 1

The study took place over 12 weeks and involved a total of 135 subjects. Some of the subjects took HCA, while others took a placebo. By the end of the 12 week period, the HCA group had not exhibited a statistically significant difference in terms of percentage body fat loss or weight loss.

Some thought this would be the end of HCA as a dietary supplement. But other studies have offered conflicting results.

Criticisms Of This Study

One of the main criticisms of this study comes from Harry Preuss, a researcher at Georgetown University who claims that the JAMA study “used whatever the dose was at the time, and they never mentioned the type of citrate they used.” In other words, they may have been using the wrong HCA.

Additionally, others have criticized this study for its heavy use of dietary fiber. Dietary fiber is thought to interfere with HCA, which could have inhibited weight loss in the HCA group.

In 2003, Japanese researchers published a study in Fitoterapia. This study examined the effects of Garcinia cambogia extract on mice over a period of 4 weeks.

The research concluded by stating that treatment “was found to have no effect on body weight, fat pad weight, or serum glucose level.”

However, Garcinia cambogia was shown to have other physiological effects. Treated mice displayed lower levels of serum insulin and leptin, for example, as well as a lower ratio of leptin/WAT.

This led researchers to conclude that “G. cambogia extract efficiently improved glucose metabolism and displayed leptin-like activity.”

Dr. Preuss, the guy we just motioned above, decided to lead his own study on HCA. Dr. Preuss’s study involved 30 “healthy but overweight people” between the ages of 21 and 50. The study took place over an 8 week period. 2

Dr. Preuss and his team found some surprising results. All of the subjects were told to consume a diet of 2,000 calories per day and walked for half an hour five days per week.

One group was given Super CitriMax, a patented form of HCA bound with calcium and potassium. The other group was given a placebo.

By the end of the 8 week period, the placebo group had lost an average of 3 pounds. However, the HCA group had lost an average of 12 pounds – a 400% difference.

Additionally, the HCA group saw their BMI fall by an average of 6.3% compared to the placebo group’s average of 1.7%.

Another interesting effect of the study was that the HCA group saw their serotonin levels double compared to the placebo group. Additionally, the HCA group had a 16% reduction in the amount of food they ate per meal, compared to no change with the placebo group.

Like all good researchers, Dr.

The treatment group lost an average weight of 11.14 lb/person as compared with the control group, which lost an average of 4.2 lb/person.

Preuss tried to replicate his results in a follow-up study. That follow-up study involved more subjects (60 people in total, double the original study) and came to similar conclusions.

In this study, the HCA group lost an average of 10.5 pounds compared to the placebo group, which lost an average of 3.5 pounds.

Once again, in this study, the placebo group had no change in appetite, but the HCA group reported a 16% reduction in the amount of food consumed per meal.

Dr. Preuss also has his name attached to a 2005 research report on Garcinia cambogia and hydroxycitric acid. This time, Dr. Preuss collaborated with five other doctors to discuss the powerful health benefits of HCA. 3

Specifically, researchers demonstrated that HCA was much more effective when bound to certain other compounds. Naturally, HCA is bound to calcium, which reduces its bioavailability. Calcium is found naturally in Garcinia cambogia. So if you were to just eat the rind of Garcinia cambogia fruit, you would be eating HCA bound to calcium.

But when HCA is bound to salt, it makes the compound water-soluble, increasing its bioavailability. This compound is called HCA-SX, also known by its trademarked name, Super CitriMax.

When taken in the form of HCA-SX, this compound was shown to “increase serotonin availability, reduce appetite, increase fat oxidation, improve blood lipid levels, reduce body weight, and modulate a number of obesity regulatory genes without affecting the mitochondrial and nuclear proteins required for normal biochemical and physiological functions.”

In other words, this report demonstrated HCA had all of the powerful weight loss benefits it was rumored to have – with no major side effects. You just had to bind the compound to salt.

We can make a few broad conclusions about Garcinia cambogia from the studies listed above.

— First, we can conclude that hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is the most active ingredient within Garcinia cambogia and the one most intimately connected with weight loss.

Yes, there are other ingredients in Garcinia cambogia, including calcium, phosphorus, iron, and thiamine, but none of these ingredients are available in high enough doses to compete with the benefits provided by HCA.

— Second, we can conclude that HCA is not very effective when taken on its own. HCA is naturally bound to the calcium within Garcinia cambogia. This reduces bioavailability by at least 50%. This is thought to be the reason why many early studies on HCA failed to produce significant weight loss results.

— Third, we can conclude that, based on at least three separate studies, HCA is most effective when bound with salt, creating HCA-SX. HCA-SX has been clinically shown to promote weight loss, better metabolism, and reduced appetite.

— Fourth, we can conclude that more research needs to be done on Garcinia cambogia before any of these benefits can be definitively proven true. The early evidence of favor of Garcinia cambogia is positive. In several studies, participants have lost a significant amount of weight while taking Garcinia cambogia extract while also experiencing powerful appetite suppression effects.

The good news is that the medical community is actively researching Garcinia cambogia. We should know more about this unique tropical plant in the near future.

Why Garcinia Cambogia Supplements Can Be Dangerous

Garcinia cambogia supplements can actually be dangerous. Today, there are hundreds of shady internet companies selling Garcinia cambogia extract online. The vast majority of these products are totally unregulated and have not been approved by any regulatory body in the world – like the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

One of the problems with the FDA is that it regulates foods and drugs. For some bizarre reason, the FDA has decided that “supplements” are neither foods nor drugs, so it chooses to ignore the supplement industry.

That’s why Americans can purchase virtually any supplement they want online. That’s also why buying supplements online can be so dangerous.

Garcinia cambogia supplements, in many cases, contain very little Garcinia cambogia. Instead, they contain trace amounts of G. cambogia extract along with high levels of caffeine and other filler ingredients.

Ultimately, pure Garcinia cambogia extract has demonstrated some surprising benefits in clinical testing. However, you need to be careful where you buy from and which manufacturers you work with.

It’s All About How You Take It

The information listed above isn’t designed to scare you away from Garcinia cambogia. It’s meant to educate you about one central concept:

The effectiveness of Garcinia cambogia depends entirely on how you take it.

In all of the successful clinical tests on Garcinia cambogia extract (HCA), participants were instructed to exercise and eat a healthy diet while restricting their caloric intake.

Aside from appetite suppression, apple cider vinegar has the ability to increase your metabolism, meaning you'll burn more calories throughout the day.

Both the placebo groups and HCA groups in these studies lost weight, but the HCA groups consistently lost more weight and experienced powerful appetite suppression along with other health benefits.

This has led many to conclude that Garcinia cambogia is a powerful weight loss and appetite suppression tool, but it works especially well if you’re using Garcinia cambogia to complement an existing diet or exercise routine.

Will Garcinia cambogia help you lose weight without diet or exercise? Probably not.

But if you maintain a healthy diet and take the recommended dose of Garcinia cambogia per day, you may be able to lose more weight than someone who is eating the same diet and maintains the same exercise routine as you – at least according to current clinical studies.

How to Use Garcinia Cambogia

If you’re taking Garcinia cambogia for its weight loss benefits and appetite suppression effects, it’s recommended you find a Garcinia cambogia supplement with at least 50% hydroxycitric acid (HCA).

Typically, Garcinia cambogia comes in capsule form. When taking Garcinia cambogia capsules, you should take the capsules 30 to 60 minutes before each meal with a glass of water. The recommended dose is between 500mg to 1000mg, so you may need to take multiple capsules.

You should not eat or drink anything for 15 minutes after taking Garcinia cambogia in capsule form. This enhances bioavailability.

Repeat the above dose before every meal of the day.

You can also find Garcinia cambogia in liquid form. If you’re taking Garcinia cambogia as a liquid, you should place one serving under your tongue 10 minutes prior to eating a meal. Most Garcinia cambogia liquid supplements consider one serving to be 1ml, which works out to about 20 drops.

Just like with the capsule form, you should not eat or drink anything for 15 minutes after ingesting Garcinia cambogia in order to enhance bioavailability. You should also repeat the above dose before every meal of the day.

Garcinia Cambogia Side Effects

In clinical studies, Garcinia cambogia has proven to be a safe, well-tolerated oral supplement. Patients have exhibited no serious effects when taking Garcinia cambogia for up to 12 continuous weeks (which is the maximum length of studies performed so far).

Participants have reported some minor side effects from Garcinia cambogia, including nausea, digestive tract discomfort, and headaches.

If you’re experiencing painful side effects after ingesting Garcinia cambogia, then it’s probably not Garcinia cambogia that’s causing the problems. Instead, it’s the shady, low-quality pharmaceutical companies adding dangerous filler ingredients to their formulations.

Conclusion: Is Garcinia Cambogia Right for You?

Garcinia cambogia has an unfair reputation as a dietary supplement “scam”.

Unfortunately, that reputation comes from low-quality Garcinia cambogia extract manufacturers, many of which try to pass off dangerous caffeine-based formulations as some type of Garcinia cambogia extract.

In clinical settings, Garcinia cambogia has proven to be an effective weight loss and appetite suppression tool in at least three major studies. These studies relied on the active ingredient within Garcinia cambogia, hydroxycitric acid (HCA).

When you buy Garcinia cambogia extract supplements, pick a supplement with at least 50% HCA content. Buy from trusted manufacturers and trusted online sources.

Ultimately, the best Garcinia cambogia results have come from combining the supplement with diet and exercise.

Garcinia cambogia is not a miracle pill that will help you lose weight while eating pizza on the couch all day.

But when taken properly and intelligently, Garcinia cambogia and HCA can lead to some surprising weight loss results.

1. Heymsfield SB, et al. Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid) as a potential antiobesity agent: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1998 Nov 11;280(18):1596-600.

2. Preuss HG, et al. Efficacy of a novel, natural extract of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) and a combination of HCA-SX, niacin-bound chromium and Gymnema sylvestre extract in weight management in human volunteers: a pilot study. Nutrition Research. 2004 Jan; 24(1); 45-58

3. Preuss, HG, et al., Effects of a natural extract of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (CHA-SX) and a combination of HCA-SX plus niacin-bound chromium and Gymnema sylvestre extract on weight loss. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2004 May; 6(3): 171-80.