Cambogia fruit in marathi

Cambogia fruit in marathi
Suzuki, A., Fujii, A., Yamamoto, N., Yamamoto, M., Ohminami, H., Kameyama, A., Shibuya, Y., Nishizawa, Y., Tokimitsu, I., and Saito, I.

In this index, you will find spices ordered according to the region they probably stem from. Since spice trade is nearly as old as humanity itself, we cannot reconstruct the natural occurrence of spice plants in all cases.

For every region, I have included the most important spices used in present-day local cuisine. Of course, this information cannot be exhaustive, in part because spice usage may differ even in relatively small regions and in part because since I have not travelled to all these places, I rely on second-hand information, which is rather sparse about some topics.

You may find that this index is rather Asia-centered; although certainly true, I claim that this is not due to my personal interest in Indian and South-East Asian cooking, but rather due to the fact that nearly all spices important in our days are of Asian origin (exclude allspice, vanilla and chile from this statement). Therefore, it seemed convenient to split up the Asian section of this index in several parts, while only one section deals with African or American spices, respectively.

This index contains short hints about more than 60 herbs and spices that are not treated on my pages. Some of these spices are very obscure, have highly specialized (often non-culinary) applications, are only used in a small region or are merely of historic interest. Some others are quite interesting and deserve a fuller treatment, but I do not know enough about them to write a full article. Whenever that changes (maybe because of your help?), I will gladly write more about these spices.

Surprisingly few spices actually stem from Europe, although many have been imported. The Romans brought many of their Mediterranean spices to the countries north of the Alps, and some of them found the climate acceptable and were easy to cultivate; some even spread over the new habitat and became part of the local flora.

The following plants are commonly believed to be of European origin, although you might find different opinion expressed in some literature.

  • Bear’s garlic (ramson) (Allium ursinum )
  • Blue Fenugreek (Trigonella caerulea )
  • Borage (Borago officinalis )
  • Caraway (Carum carvi )
  • Celery (Apium graveolens )
  • Chives (Allium schoenoprasum )
  • Cicely (Myrrhis odorata )
  • Gale (Myrica gale )
  • Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana )
  • Juniper (Juniperus communis )
  • Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris )
  • Southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum )
  • Water cress (Nasturtium officinale )

Today, Europe’s local cuisines use a lot of herbs from the Mediterranean, of general importance are bay leaf, marjoram, oregano, rosemary, savoury and thyme, most of which can be grown in cool temperate climate (in our days, though, they get mostly imported because of cost and quality considerations).

Since ancient times, onion and garlic are cultivated in Europe. However, because of its strong odour, garlic is less appreciated especially in North Europe, where excessive garlic consumption seems to be regarded as a kind of social crime. Onion is more used as a vegetable.

Hungary is well-known for its paprika (bell pepper) and its variety of diverse chiles (a gift from the New World). In other European countries, hot chiles are less enjoyed, although they do play some rГґle in South East Europe (Balkan peninsular) and in some of the Mediterranean states.

Tropic spices are usually not essential ingredients in traditional European cuisine – with the exception of black pepper, which is held in high esteem all over the world. Cinnamon and cloves find their main applications in sweet dishes, ginger and nutmeg are used even less. Although cardamom is nearly unknown in most of Europe, Scandinavians are very fond of it and use it to flavour bread and pastries.

There are more European plants that get used culinarily, though in most cases use is rare, or restricted to a small area; others are mainly of historical interest.

In the first place, there are truffles (black or PГ©rigord truffle, Tuber melanosporum , and white or Alba truffle, Tuber magnatum ), whose absence from this page can only be regarded as a serious demerit. They played an eminent rГґle in French cuisine of the 18.th century, and still have much importance despite their high price.

Angelica (Angelica archangelica , Apiaceae) is distributed over Northern Eurasia. All plant parts have a strong and penetrating odour and are occasionally used for cooking, particularly in Northern Europe (e. g., for fish soups). The plant is, however, more important for flavouring liqueurs.

Asarabacca (European ginger, Asarum europaeum , Aristolochiaceae/Aristolichiales/Magnoliidae ) is a perennial herb of forests in Europe except the Mediterranean. The fleshy rhizome contains an essential oil of variable composition and has a pleasant aromatic flavour. In Chinese (A. sieboldii , A. heterotropoides ) and North American (A. canadensis , wild ginger ) relatives, a nephrotoxic compound called aristolochic acid has been found. Nevertheless, both the European and a American species enjoy some popularity as wild vegetable and flavouring.

Calamus (Sweet flag, Acorus calamus , Araceae/Arales/Arecidae ), though native to India, is now naturalized all over the Northern hemisphere. The rhizome is very aromatic and can be candied like ginger (whence the name German ginger ), but is rarely used to flavour food. It is quite bitter (which is why it often appears in liqueurs), and the high content of ОІ-asarone makes it rather unsafe on regular use. Calamus traded in pharmacies nearly always stems from American plants that are low in ОІ-asarone.

Elder (Sambucus nigra , Caprifoliaceae/Dipsacales/Cornidae ) bears highly scented flowers, which are used as flavouring for desserts and beverages. The dark purple fruits have, in times fortunately long past, been used as a wine colourant.

Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata , Brassicaceae) has leaves with a distinct garlic flavour and seeds that are pungent like mustard. It is used occasionally by peasants, especially in Eastern Europe.

Ground ivy (Glechoma hederacea , Lamiaceae) is an extremely common weed in Central and Western Europe. The leaves, which have an aroma slightly reminiscent of mint and thyme, are an interesting if seldom-used culinary spice; I have heard of Czech recipes using it. In the past, they were also employed for beer brewing whence the name alehoof .

Hop (Humulus lupulus , Cannabaceae/Urticales/Dilleniidae ) is, of course, very important for beer brewing, but is hardly ever used for cooking. Also, beer has (other than wine) not much use in the kitchen except, maybe, to quench the cook’s thirst.

Poplar (Populus alba , Salicaceae/Salicales/Dilleniidae ) yields leaf buds and young leaves with characteristic, aromatic odour; some sources state that they have been used as a flavouring in the past. They are still employed as flavourant for local types of liquor.

Reflexed stonecrop (Sedum reflexum , Crassulaceae/Rosales ) has fleshy leaves with fresh flavour which are used mainly in Western Europe as a garnish. Chopped stonecrop leaves have formerly been quite popular to add extra sensation to salads, but in our days it is no longer fashionable.

Salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor , Rosaceae) is a wild plant in Western Europe that gets occasionally cultivated. It is rich in tannines to which the leaves owe a astringent but nutty taste. The leaves are used to spice up lettuce, salads and particularly the Frankfurt Green Sauce (see borage).

Wild rosemary (Marsh tea, Ledum palustre , Ericaceae/ Ericales/ Cornidae ) is a wild plant of bogs and swamps of the Northern hemisphere. There are several subspecies, one of which ( Labrador tea ) is a popular tea plant in Canada. The European form was, like the ecologically similar gale, used for gruit beer, although it contains narcotic sesquiterpene alcohols and is not fully harmless.

Sorrel (Rumex acetosa , Polygonaceae) is known for its acidic and pungent leaves which contain oxalic acid. It is used occasionally, e. g., in Green Sauce.

Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare , Asteraceae) grows all over Europe, but as far as I know, its culinary usage is restricted to Britain. The leaves have a dominant, not very agreeable, odour which is mostly due to the toxic thujone (see also southernwood).

Woodruff (Galium odoratum , Rubiaceae/Gentianales/Cornidae ) grows wild in the forests of Western Europe. On wilting of the aerial parts, coumarine is liberated (see also tonka bean) which gives its incomparable flavour to some traditional flavoured wines.

The area around the Mediterranean Sea, belonging in part to Europe, Asia and Africa, has always been a cultural unity. Early spice trading routes lead from China and India via the Arab peninsular to the Mediterranean Sea, which made the region an important place of cultural and culinary exchange. In the warm Mediterranean climate, many fragrant plants grew abundantly; and in the course of millennia, even more have been introduced by traders, refugees or immigrants from further East.

Asian spices became popular in Europe first in the Age of Hellenism. Later, spice trade blossomed in the late days of the Romans, about two thousand years ago; from the beginning, spice trade was dominated by the Arabs.

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Apicius’ De re coquinaria is one of the oldest European cookbooks; it lists some tropical spices, of which long pepper was most valued. Black pepper, cloves and Chinese cinnamon (cassia) also figure prominently. The enigmatic spice silphion (probably of Northern African origin) became extinct around 100 AD and was substituted by asafetida (from Central Asia). The usage of olive oil is a cultural constant in the Mediterranean since five millennia.

Today, Mediterranean Europe mostly relies on its native or imported herbs. Basil (stemming originally from South or even South East Asia) today grows wild all over South Europe and is used extensively, especially in Italian cuisine; the same holds for the indigenous oregano. Garlic figures more prominently than in Northern European countries. Regionally, saffron is used for fish or sea food specialties, but the high price of this spice limits its usage. Throughout the region, some dishes require small amounts of chiles; fiery food, however, is not typical.

Typical spice mixtures from Southern Europe are bouquet garni (see parsley) and Herbes de Provence (see lavender).

In Asia Minor and West Asia, herbs cease to be dominant. Coriander and cumin (from Persia, but grown locally) are popular, and the use of pungent spices (mainly black pepper and chiles) becomes more common. The berries of the sumac tree are essential to reproduce the astringent and sour taste found in many dishes from Turkey to Israel.

In Northern Africa, chiles take an important part in fiery stews and sauces. Coriander and cumin both are used extensively, but also African spices (grains of paradise) are common. Of the spices from tropical Asia, cinnamon and cloves find most use. All these, and more, may appear in Moroccan spice mixtures (ras el hanout, see cubeb pepper).

Although a large number of Mediterranean herbs is discussed here, the treatment is not exhaustive: There are many more that find their way in the kitchen on occasion. Sometimes, these are wild relatives of herbs treated here which are collected by knowledgeable family members, because their flavour is regarded superior to that of commercially grown ones. This usage is often very local and is hardly mentioned in cookbooks. This applies particularly to herbs of the mint family, e. g., thyme, marjoram and especially oregano. Further interesting plants from the Mediterranean are:

Black lovage (alexanders, Smyrnium olusatrum , Apiaceae) is similar to lovage and celery, having aromatic roots, leaves and fruits. Today, the culinary importance of that herb is low.

Mastic (mastiha [ ОјО¬ПѓП„О№П‡О± ]) is a resin obtained from Pistacia lentiscus var. chia (Anacardiaceae), a tree growing only on the island of Chios in Eastern Greece, though lesser grades are harvested from related species. It was an important commodity in the Middle Ages, but is now only used in Greek cooking (see mahaleb cherry for more).

Samphire (Crithmum maritimum , Apiaceae) grows along all coasts of Europe, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Black Sea. The leaves are succulent with a salty–aromatic flavour and have been a popular flavouring for salads in the past; samphire pickle, formerly much eaten in Britain, is now still popular in the Mediterranean.

Pennyroyal, Mentha pulegium (Lamiaceae), differs markedly from culinary mints. It is used since antiquity in Roman cooking (see silphion). Despite its mild toxicity, it is a traditional herb in Britain.

Calamint, Calamintha nepeta , is an aromatic herb used in regional Italian cooking (nepitella). Its flavour reminds of related Lamiaceae herbs, e.g., thyme, mint savory or oregano.

Pine nuts (pignoli) are the seeds collected from the Mediterranean stone pine (Pinus pinea , Pinaceae/Pinales ); in temperate Asia, related pine species are also used. They have a wonderful ethereal–aromatic flavour and are particularly important in Spanish and Italian cooking, e. g., for pesto (see basil).

Purslane (Portulaca oleracea , Portulacaceae/Caryophyllales ) is an annual herb probably native to the Himalayas, but today naturalized in Western Asia and Southern Europe. Although often eaten cooked as a vegetable, the raw leaves and stems have a crispy texture and a salty, fresh taste that makes them a good garnish for Mediterranean cold foods, e. g., West Asian appetizers. The flower buds have a more pronounced flavour and have been tried as a caper substitute.

Possibly, cumin and some other of the spices listed in the previous section have their origin actually in western Central Asia, being spread westwards by migrating peoples in prehistoric times.

Today’s Persian or Arabian cooking uses a multitude of spices, having easy access to Indian or Southeast Asian ingredients. Cardamom is much valued as an essential component of Arab-style coffee.

Cooking styles of the Arabic peninsular have a preference for aromatic but fiery food. Yemeni zhoug (see coriander), a spicy chili-laden paste, and Saudi Arabic baharat (see paprika) may serve as examples.

The Caucasus republics, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, have developed a unique style of foods, although Russian and Turkish influences can bee seen. Georgia has a mild yet flavourful cuisine much basing on the flavours of dried herbs (see blue fenugreek for the Georgian spice mix khmeli-suneli [ ხმელი-სუნელი ]) and of sour–fruity sauces prepared from fresh or preserved fruits. Fresh herbs are often sprinkled over warm and cold dishes; uniquely, Georgian cooking makes parallel use of both parsley and coriander leaves; the latter are not used anywhere else in the region.

A similar inkling to fruity flavours is found in neighbouring Azərbaycan (Azerbaijan) and in Iran. A typical Irani spice that is, unfortunately, missing from these spice pages is barberry, Berberis vulgaris ( Berberidaceae /Ranunculales), called zereshk or sereshk [ زرشک ] in Farsi and k’ots’akhuri [ კოწახური ] in Georgian; it is often used to flavour ground meats or Persian rice dishes (polo [ پلو ]). Another source of sour flavour in Irani foods are dried limes (see also fenugreek for khoreshte ghorme sabzi).

An interesting herb typical for Georgian cooking is marigold (Tagetes erecta , Asteraceae), which appears in several recipes including the spice mix khmeli suneli (see blue fenugrek). In Georgian, it is simply called yellow flower (q’vit’eli q’vavili [ ყვითელი ყვავილი ]) or Imeretian saffron (imeruli zaprana [ იმერული ზაფრანა ]), and sometimes just zaprana which can lead to confusion with the much different saffron. The marigold flowers are dried and ground to yield a yellow powder that hat a mild, sweet scent. It can best be substituted by safflower. Sometimes, also the fresh sprigs are used that have a different, much stronger flavour reminscent of the South American huacatay.

The proper Central Asian region, between the Caspian Sea and the Tianshan mountains [ 天山 ], is a region rather devoid of local spices, although imported spices are available since antiquity, because the ancient Spice Route running from China to the Mediterranean cuts through that region. Cookbooks of Kazakhstan sometimes mention local herbs with cress-like flavour. Combinations of dried fruits with meats are very popular, where cooks often use local species of genus Prunus (apricot, plum).

South Asia, which encompasses the Deccan peninsular and the southern slopes of the Himalayas, has a variety of indigenous spice plants. Furthermore, Southeast Asian spices have been traded in India since thousands of years. Therefore, Indian cuisine is one of the most fragrant and aromatic in the world. A large number of spices native to South Asia has been exported long ago either to the West or to the East. For example, in today’s South East Asia, we find spices of Indian origin that have no place in today’s Indian cooking, e. g., lemon grass or lesser galangale. The following table shows only those South Asian spices that flavour the contemporary South Asian kitchen.

  • Basil (Ocimum basilicum )
  • Black cardamom (Amomum subulatum )
  • Black cumin (Bunium persicum )
  • Black pepper (Piper nigrum )
  • Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum )
  • Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum )
  • Curry leaf (Murraya koenigii )
  • Indian bay leaf (Cinnamomum tamala )
  • Long pepper (Piper longum )
  • Mango (Mangifera indica )
  • Orange (Citrus sinensis )
  • Screw pine (pandanus) flower (Pandanus odoratissimus )
  • Turmeric (Curcuma longa )

In today’s Indian cuisine, many more spices play an important part.

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Chiles, brought to Asia from the New World by the Portuguese, are used generously, especially in South India and Sri Lanka. Tamarind (from East Africa) is used to give some Southern Indian curry dishes a sour and tart flavour. Of the European and Central Asian spices, coriander, cumin and garlic are now indispensable for the taste of Indian food. Cinnamon, originally growing on the island of Sri Lanka, is now valued all over India and frequently combined with cloves, which stem from Southeast Asia.

Arab influence in South Asia is strongest in Afghanistan, Pakistan and North India. Cooks in these regions tend to use less chiles but more fragrant spices (cloves, saffron and cinnamon).

There are numerous spice mixtures in India, but most of them have nothing in common with the curry powder of Western supermarkets (see curry leaves). Most mixtures are actually not powders but pastes, made from ground spices, garlic, ginger and oil and are neither stored nor traded. Mixtures containing only dried spices are the Bengali panch phoron [ পাঁচ ফোড়ন ] (see fenugreek), the North Indian garam masala [ गरम मसाला , گرم مسالحہ , also گرم مصالحہ ] and the more Southern sambar podi [ சாம்பார் பொடி ] (for the latter two, see cumin and coriander, respectively). Southern Indian mixture (bese bele powder) is mentioned under coconut.

See black cumin about Northern Indian (Moghul style) cooking, and ajwain about spiced butter (tadka or tarka). See also onion. For a few typical recipes, see Indonesian bay-leaf for the aromatic Northern biriyani and tamarind for the fiery Southern vindaloo. Indian spiced tea (chai masala [ चाय मसाला ]) is discussed under cardamom.

Nepali cooking resembles Indian cooking in several ways, and some preparations, e.g., pickles, are quite comparable. Nepali food is typically milder than Indian food, both with respect to actual heat and usage of aromatic spices. This doesn’t make the food of Nepal bland or uninteresting, because due to Chinese influence, there are several additional flavourings made by fermentation: Cheese, soy products and the typical Nepali gundruk [ गुन्द्रुक ], dried fermented vegetable leaves. Noodles in various styles are another culinary mark left by neighbouring China.

Finally, Burma, or Myanmar, as it is now called, is the meeting place and melting pot of the great cooking traditions of India and Southeast Asia. Noodles, shrimp paste, soy sauce and sesame oil on one side and cardamom, cinnamon, turmeric and cumin on the other side witness the mixed heritage and give Burmese curries their distinct and very tasty character.

Fish flavourings are rare in the Indian subcontinent; this is in line with the observation that fermented products generally have only little tradition. The main exception to that is dried fish in Sri Lanka (umbalakada [ උම්බලකඩ ]), which is usually referred to as Maldive fish in English. Yet, fermented preparation from water-living organisms play an imortant rôle in North Eastern India and the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Eastern Bangladesh, which indicates South East Asian influence (mostly, Burmese). The Khasi people use a paste of fermented fish with various spices (tungtap) as a condiment, the Chakma employ shrimp paste (sidol [ 𑄥𑄨𑄘𑄮𑄣𑄴 ]) for cooking, and in Manipur, the Meitei have a dry-fermented fish called ngari [ ঙারি , ꯉꯥꯔꯤ ]. More rarely, fermented soy bean products are found in that region: Khasi tungrymbai, Manipuri hawaijar [ হাৰায়জার , ꯍꯥꯋꯢꯖꯥꯔ ].

I am fascinated by Indian cooking; consequently, my treatment of Indian spices is intended quite exhaustive. Nevertheless, there are some Indian spices of which I still know too little to write a detailed description:

First of all, one should mention kokam ([ कोकम ], kokum, Garcinia indica , Clusiaceae/ Theales/ Dilleniidae ), a souring agent for South West Indian fish curries. The main constituent responsible for the acidic taste is hydroxycitric acid.

In Sri Lanka, goraka [ ගොරකා , கொறக்கா ] is a similar spice also rich in hydroxycitric acid, derived from Garcinia cambogia . It is used for many meat and particularly fish curries, imparting both a refreshing sour note and a brownisch colour to the foods.

There is a little-known spice radhuni [ রাধুনি ] or randhuni [ রাঁধুনি ] used only in Bengali cooking and practically unavailable outside of Bengal. Its botanical identity is Trachyspermum roxburghianum (Apiaceae, Hindi: ajmud), but it gets often confused with ajwain. True radhuni has an aroma comparable to celery and fenugreek. Truly authentic variants of the Bengali spice blend panch phoron contain radhuni where the common mixtures have black mustard seeds (see nigella for details).

In Nepal, jimbu [ जिम्बु ] are the dried leaves of a local onion species (Allium wallachii (variously also identified as A. hypsistum or A. przewalskianum , Alliaceae). The plants grows in the higher part of the Himalayas (Mustang district) and is collected from wild populations. It is a local spice mostly used by ethnic groups living in that area (especially Thakali, also Gurung). When fried very shortly, is relases a flavour very similar to asafetida which is not known in that region. In the Indian union state Uttakhand, the spice is known as jambu [ जम्बू ] and used equivalently. See chives for some more usage notes.

Cockscomb (Celosia argentea var. cristata , Amaranthaceae/Caryophyllales ) is a common ornamental in some European countries. In India, the bright red flowers (Hindi lal murghka, Kashmiri moul [ Щ…Щ€Щ„ ]) are used as a food colourant.

Horseradish tree (Drumstick tree, Moringa oleifera , Moringaceae/Capparales ) grows wild in Northern India (Southern foothills of the Himalayas). The tree is very versatile: The young fruits (drumsticks) are eaten as a vegetable, an interesting oil (ben oil) is extracted from the seeds, the leaves are used medicinally and the root and root bark are rich in glucosinolates, which lend them a pungent, horseradish-like flavour. Nevertheless, this is one of the more rare flavourings in Indian cooking.

The wild tree Buchanania lanzan (Anacardiaceae) yields edible seeds (chironji [ छीरोंजी ]) with almond flavour; they are used in India, particularly the North East, to make sweets.

The herb Saussurea lappa (syn. S. costus ) (Asteraceae) is native to Kashmir and grows nowhere else; in India, it is known as putchuk or kushtha [ कुष्ठ], and in the West, the name costus is most common. The dried root has a strong, perfumed odor and is often used in perfumery; in late antiquity and the early Middle Ages, it was used in Europe as a culinary spice.

Spikenard (Nardostachys jatamansi , Valerianaceae/Dipsacales/Cornidae , Sanskrit jatamansi [ जटामांसि ] or jatavati [ जटावती ]) is a similar case: It is also native to the Himalaya region and is of great importance for perfumery, but in our times practically never used for cooking. The related herb Valeriana celtica (Alpine valerian, speick) was, since the Middle Ages, often used as a cheaper substitute for expensive spikenard.

IndianВ cuisines, generally, use very little herbs besides coriander and to a lesser extent mint. Yet, the cooking styles on the North-Eastern edge are an exception to that and employ a large number of herbs also found in Southeast Asia, most so in the Manipur state. There, cooks make use of chameleon leaf, dill, long coriander and even Vietnamese coriander.

A herb unique to that region is Elsholtzia blanda , known as lomba [ লোম্বা , ꯂꯣꯝꯕꯥ ] in Manipuri, lengser or lengmaser in Mizo, niepfü or rünou in Angami Naga, zutsu in Lotha Naga and napa in Ao Naga. The dried inflorescence, which form a thick spike, has an intensive fresh lemon fragrance quite similar to lemon verbena and is used to flavour pickled bamboo sprouts and soupy fish curries.

A closely related herb is Elsholtzia fruticosa sometimes called Shrubby Mint in English,, which I found not in Nagaland but only in Manipur. It is locally known as kang-human [ কাংহুমান , ꯀꯥꯡꯍꯨꯃꯥꯟ ]. The flavour is quite comparable to Vietnamese balm which is closeley retated botanically and also looks very similar.

Alkanet (Alkanna tinctoria , Boraginaceae) is a Mediterranean plant cultivated in India for its red rhizome, which yields a dye (Hindi ratan jot [ रतन जोत ]). The dried rhizome is occasionally used as a food colouring in the North West.

The so-galled mango ginger (Curcuma amada ) is a minor and rather strictly South Indian spice.

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The plant much resembles turmeric, but the rhizome is only pale yellow; its scent indeed mimicks the fragrance of unripe mangos very closely.

A rather enigmatic spice of Southern India is a dried lichen referred to as kalpasi [ а®•а®ІаЇЌа®Єа®ѕа®ља®ї ] in Tamil and dagor phul in Marathi (the latter name occasionally stands for star anise, though). The plant material is rather tastelesse, but it is widely used; I am not sure about its culinary merit.

Due to its tropical climate, Southeast Asia has a large number of native aromatic plants, most of which are preferred fresh in local cuisines. The Moluccas, a group of small islands on the border between Asia and Australia and home of nutmeg and cloves, have been the center of European spice policy in the late Middle Ages and the first centuries of the modern times.

  • Chameleon plant (Houttuynia cordata )
  • Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum )
  • Coconut (Cocos nucifera )
  • Cubeb pepper (Piper cubeba )
  • Fingerroot (Boesenbergia pandurata )
  • Ginger (Zingiger officinale )
  • Greater galanga (Alpinia galanga )
  • Indonesian bay leaf (Eugenia polyantha )
  • Indonesian cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannii )
  • Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix )
  • Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus )
  • Lesser galanga (Kaempferia galanga )
  • Lime (Citrus aurantifolia )
  • Long pepper (Piper retrofractum )
  • Mace and Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans )
  • Perilla (Perilla frutescens )
  • Rice paddy herb (Limnophila aromatica )
  • Screw pine (pandanus) leaf (Pandanus amaryllifolius )
  • Vietnamese cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi )
  • Vietnamese coriander (Persicaria odorata )

Today, all these spices (with the exception of cinnamon varieties, cloves and nutmeg, which are not so much in use) feature prominently in at least some of the major South East Asian cuisines. Furthermore, chiles, ginger and garlic are found all over the region, as are coconut products: coconut milk and coconut oil.

In Southeast Asia, numerous independent culinary styles have evolved; yet most of them prefer spices fresh (if available), and also fresh herbs (basil, coriander leaves and mint) are popular as a fragrant decoration in Vietnam, Cambodia and Thailand. Throughout the region, pungent fish preparations are essential: Fish sauces (nam pla [ น้ำปลา ] in Thailand, nuoc mam [ nước mắm ] in Vietnam), shrimp pastes (gapi [ ငပိ ] in Burma, trassi in Malaysia and Indonesia) and the unique Cambodian paste prepared from fresh water fish, prahok [ ប្រហុក ]. Fish sauce is also known in Southern China, where it is called yu lu [ 魚露 ]; but in Chinese cuisine, it is only a minor flavouring.

Thai cooks use even more spices (e. g., kaffir lime leaves, lemon grass and fingerroot) and other strong-smelling ingredients like dried fish to achieve the characteristic aroma of Thai dishes. Since they use chiles generously, Thai food is sometimes extremely hot and fiery. For Thai curries, see coconut. See also basil and mint for more Thai recipes.

In Cambodia and Vietnam, spice usage is not that dominant, and also Philippinos cook rather mildly. Besides garlic and ginger, Philippine cuisine makes use of the South American annatto seeds. This spice was introduced to the Philippines by the Spaniards and is hardly known in other Asian countries.

Vietnamese cuisine is unique for its massive use of fresh herbs, some of which are used only rarely outside of Vietnam (Vietnamese coriander, long coriander), while others (rice paddy herb, chameleon herb) do not appear in other any other cooking style at all.

On the numerous islands of Indonesia, lots of very different regional cuisines have developed, which is to be explained by different life conditions (jungle nomads, farmers or seafarers; village-bound or cosmopolitan urban cultures), food taboos because of different religions (IslГўm, Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, Animism), different climates (tropical jungle, mountain woods, highlands or even dry areas) and several other factors.

Most Indonesian cuisines do not use sweet spices, which is all the more remarkable because cloves, nutmeg and the Sumatra cinnamon variety are indigenous to Indonesia. Instead of these, the most popular spices are ginger, onion, garlic and moderate amounts of chiles, furthermore galanga and turmeric. Indonesian dishes frequently need shrimp paste (trassi) and soy sauce (kecap), which is also used in a thick and very sweet variety (kecap manis). Especially Jawanese dishes sometimes contain large amounts of sugar and taste sweet–spicy, while I enjoyed rather hot food in Sumatra, and Bali certainly displays the largest variety of different spices.

Some highlights of Indonesian cookery are shortly discussed under greater galangale (rendang, a buffalo stew from Western Sumatra), Sichuan pepper (sangsang, a spicy pork variety meats stew from Northern Sumatra), coconut (ayam pa’piong, a chicken dish from Sulawesi), mango (the pan-Indonesian fruit salad rujak) and lesser galangale (bebek batulu, Balinese roast duck). About Indonesian spice pastes (bumbu) in general, see lemon grass, for information about Balinese cuisine see Indonesian bay leaf and for Jawa cookery see tamarind.

Many more herbs and spices are used in the many and varied culinary styles of that large region. Particularly in Vietnam, there is a large whealth of local herbs that are not commonly available in the West. The following are particularly worth noting:

TorchВ ginger (Etlingera elatior , ZinВ­giВ­beraceae) is a unique spice: The infloresВ­cence is used to flavour curries in SingaВ­pore and Malaysia (bunga kantan).

In Thailand (cha pluu [ ช้าพลู ]) and Vietnam (la lot [ lá lốt ]), fragrant wild betel leaves are commonly used to wrap rice or other foods into. These leaves stem from a member of the pepper genus (Piper sarmentosum , Piperaceae) which is closely related to the so-called betel pepper, Piper betle , in indispensable part of the betel bits consumed in South East Asia and India (pan [ पान ]).

Musk mallow (ambrette, Abelmoschus moschatus , Malvaceae/Malvales/Dilleniidae ) is a closely related plant with aromatic seeds. There is constant rumour of it being used as a coffee flavourant, but I don’t even know where this usage is supposed to happen.

Vietnamese balm (Elsholtzia ciliata , Lamiaceae) plays some rГґle in Southern Vietnam (rau kinh gioi [ rau kinh giб»›i ]) as part of the canonical herb garnish (see Vietnamese coriander).

Butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea , Fabaceae) has large, deeply blue flowers that are used to give a bluish hue to desserts in Thailand (anchan, anjan [ аё­аё±аёЌаёЉаё±аё™ ]) and Malaysia (bunga telang). In our days, it is mostly substituted by synthetic food colourants.

Broadleaf thyme (Cuban oregano, Indian borage, Mexican mint, Plectranthus amboinicus , Coleus amboinicus , Lamiaceae) is a herb native to South East Asia, though it has been introduced to the Caribbean. The leaves posses a strong odour due to an essential oil rich in carvacrol. The fresh herb is used in Indonesia (daun jinten), but especially in Vietnam (rau day tan las [ rau tбє§n dбє§y lГЎs ]), as a garnish.

Quite rarely, I have read reports claiming that the pungent seeds of some members of the Araceae family (e. g., Giant Elephant’s Ear, Colocasia gigantea ) are used as pepper surrogate in South East Asia.

The fruits of the tree Garcinia atroviridis ( Clusiaceae/Theales/Dilleniidae ) are used as a source of acidity especially in Malaysia (asam gelugur), similar to the use of other Garcinia species in South India and Sri Lanka.

Aleurites moluccana ( Euphorbiaceae/Euphorbiales/Dilleniidae ) yields seeds ( candle nut , kemiri) which are a very common although bland ingredient of Indonesian spice pastes. See also lemon grass about spice mixtures containing candlenuts.

A quite interesting spice is derived from the Indonesian pangi or kepayang tree, Pangium edule ( Flacourtiaceae/Violales ). The seeds, known as kluak or kluwak in Indonesian and as pamarassan in bahasa toraja, are an ingredient typical for a few Indonesian local cuisines, e. g. in East Jawa and Central Sulawesi. They provide a dark colour, an intensive nutty taste and a smooth, somewhat oily texture. For flavour development and removal of hydrocyanic acid, the seeds need a fermentation procedure by which they turn from cream colour to almost black.

Sandalwood (Santalum album , Santalaceae/Santalales/Rosidae ) is the core wood of a parasitic plant native to the Lesser Sunda Islands, probably Timor.

Lise fra “I de voksnes rækker” og “Kram i krogene” er nu heftigt forlovet med Anders.

Today much of it is grown in Southern India and used for incenses. Though powerfully fragrant, it has never been used much for cooking.

The whole East Asian region is dominated by Chinese culture. Chinese cookery is very varied and highly sophisticated; it has influenced all East Asian cuisines, and is also a important contribution to all South East Asian culinary styles.

  • Chameleon plant (Houttuynia cordata )
  • Chinese cinnamon (cassia) (Cinnamomum cassia )
  • Ginger (Zingiger officinale )
  • Lesser galanga (Kaempferia galanga )
  • Perilla (Perilla frutescens )
  • Sichuan pepper (Zanthoxylum piperitum )
  • Star anise (Illicium verum )
  • Wasabi (Wasabia japonica )
  • Water pepper (Persicaria hydropiper )

Chinese cuisine derives its attraction not so much from different spices, but from a multitude of meat and vegetable ingredients with different flavour, shape, colour and texture, and from a wealth of standardized cooking and frying methods; the only common spice mixture is the famous five spice powder (wu xiang fen [ 五香粉 ], see star anise), which is frequently used to flavour fried meat all over China. Soy sauce (jiang you [ 酱油 ]) is the most important condiment in China, but to prepare authentic Chinese foods, also other soy products are needed, for example sweet bean paste (haixian jiang [ 海鲜酱 ], better known by its Cantonese name hoisin jeung [ 海鮮醬 ]), hot bean paste (douban jiang [ 豆瓣酱 ]) and fermented black beans (dou chi [ 豆豉 ]).

The least spicy cooking style in China is Cantonese cuisine, which is native to the Guangdong province [ е№їдёњ , е»Јжќ± ]. The name Cantonese derives from the province capital Guangzhou [ е№їе·ћ , е»Је·ћ ] that was formerly known as Canton in the West. Cantonese cuisine has a reputation for its exotic meat dishes made from dogs, cats, monkeys and snakes. It is also known for a varity of barbecued meats (siu mei [ з‡’е‘і ], Mandarin shao wei [ зѓ§е‘і ]), for example spare ribs (cha siu [ еЏ‰з‡’ ], often spelled char siu in the West, Mandarin cha shao [ еЏ‰зѓ§ ]).

A famous Cantonese food term is dim sam [ й»ћеїѓ ] (in English also spelt dim sum), which is not a dish but a light meal composed a selection of small dishes; a most popular choice are meat-stuffed dumplings made from ground pork, chicken or shrimps with light yet subtle flavourings. Outside of Guangdong, the term has mainly come to mean a variety of such steamed pasta. Though Cantonese in origin, dim sam is now enjoyed all over China (Mandarin dian xin [ з‚№еїѓ ]).

By tradition, fiery food is rather uncommon in China, except in two Central Chinese provinces: Hunan [ 湖南 , 湘 ] and Sichuan (Szechwan) [ 四川 , 川 ], which is also known as Tian-fu [ 天府 ] ( heavenly province or land of plenty ). In these both provinces, but especially in Sichuan, chiles, garlic and aromatic sesame oil are popular. An important flavouring of Central Chinese cookery is red hot bean paste, doubanjiang [ 豆瓣酱 ] made from fermented broad beans. Due to domestic migration, spicy Sichuan and Hunan foods have recently become available and popular in wider parts of China. In contrast, the cuisine of the mountainous Yunnan province [ 云南 , 雲南 ] has not yet attracted much interest, though it is spicy and related to the Sichuan cuisine.

The North-Eastern Chinese cooking is usually termed the Shanghai [ дёЉжµ· ] style. It is particularly rich and often uses sweet flavours. A typical motive of Shanghai cooking is the use of rice wine (liao jiu [ ж–™й…’ ]). Red-braising (hongshao [ зєўзѓ§ ]) is a cooking technique that originates in Shanghai, although it is today commonly found all over China.

The fourth and last Great Cuisine is the Northern Beijing [ 北京 ] style, which has a large repertoire of baked foods (a Central Asian influence) and uses more wheat than rice due to climatical reasons. Two signature dishes are Beijing duck (beijing kao ya [ 北京烤鸭 ]) and Mongolian hotpot (meng-gu huo-guo [ 蒙古火锅 ]). Furthermore, sweet and sour dishes are popular: Fish ore meat are battered, deep-fried and served with a sweet–sour sauce (tangcu [ 糖醋 ] sugar and vinegar )

A handful of Chinese dishes are shortly discussed at this site: See ginger on gong bao [ 宫保 ] (stir-fried chicken with peanuts in Sichuan style), orange on au larm (Sichuan braised beef), Sichuan pepper on shui zhu niu rou [ 水煮牛肉 ] (Sichuan water-boiled beef) and chile on mapo doufu [ 麻婆豆腐 ] (bean cheese with ground pork in spicy sauce). See also star anise about five-spice-powder (wu xiang fen [ 五香粉 ]) and cassia on red braising (hongshao [ 红烧 ]) and cooking in master sauce (lu shui [ 鹵水 ]).

Cuisine in Japan restricts itself to utmost simplicity with respect to spices: Only Sichuan pepper (more precisely, a closely related Japanese species) is used as a condiment, either alone or mixed with tangerine or orange peel and chiles in form of the spice mixture shichimi tōgarashi [ 七味 唐辛子 ]. Japanese dishes, thus, owe most of their flavour to their ingredients, whose freshness and skilful preparation are crucial, furthermore to dried sea grass and kelp, several different soy products (e. g., soy sauce shōyu [ 醤油 , しょうゆ ]) and other fermented crops (miso [ 味噌 , みそ ]). A pungent root, wasabi, is served as a green paste to raw fish (sashimi [ 刺身 , さしみ ]) and rice bits (sushi [ 寿司 , すし ]); several herbs (water pepper, perilla and the young leaves of Sichuan pepper) are used both for flavour and as a decoration.

In sharp contrast, the cuisine in Korea, the most Eastern country of East Asia, is fiery and pungent, dominated by chiles, toasted sesame seeds and garlic; pickled vegetables (kim chi [ 김치 ]), both spicy and sour, are also very popular. Soy bean paste (den jang [ 된장 ], also spelled doen jang or doin jang) similar to Japanese miso and bean-chile paste (gochu jang [ кі м¶”мћҐ ], also spelled kochu jang) are essential flavourings. In both Korea and Japan, fresh spring onions are a common garnish.

There are some further local herbs and spices that are occasionally used. For example, Chinese cuisine utilizes several local onion species (Allium , see chives); for Sichuan, particularly, cookbooks mention local Himalaya herbs but don’t give any clear identification. We should also note the following:

Ginseng (Panax ginseng , Araliaceae/Araliales ) is mainly known as an expensive herb in traditional Chinese medicine, and as a flavouring for alcoholic drinks. Nevertheless, it is also used as a culinary spice, especially in Korea.

Camphor is of old an important aromatic, although it has never much been used for cooking. Yet in China, camphor has been used in the past for flavouring frozen desserts, and even now it is sometimes part of smoking mixtures, giving rise to specialties like tea and camphor wood smoked duck (zhang cha ya zi [ жЁџиЊ¶йё­е­ђ ]). There are two different products commonly named camphor : The better-known Chinese or Japanese camphor (from Cinnamomum camphora , Lauraceae) is composed of 2-bornanone and generally considered much inferior to the much more pricey Sumatra camphor or camphor of Baros (from Dryobalanops aromatica , Dipterocarpaceae/Malvales/Dilleniidae ) which is mostly composed of borneol.

Japanese cuisine uses the fresh leaves of mitsuba [ гѓџгѓ„гѓђ , гЃїгЃ¤гЃ° ] (Cryptotaenia japonica , Apiaceae ), as a culinary herb. Fresh leaves are chopped and sprinkled over soups or salads. In Chinese, the herb is known as ya er qin [ йё­е„їиЉ№ ]).

Few African spices have ever become known in the West. Personally, I know only four, of which sesame’s origin is uncertain.

  • Grains of Paradise (Melegueta Pepper) (Aframomum melegueta )
  • Negro Pepper (Kani Pepper) (Xylopia aethiopica )
  • Sesame (Sesamum indicum )
  • Silphion (Silphium)
  • Tamarind (Tamarindus indica )

During the Age of Explorations, the former two (from West Asia) were traded as cheep substitute of black pepper, unless the sea route to India was established. Later, people lost interest in them and they are now nearly forgotten (and difficult to obtain). Silphion is the name of a legendary spice in ancient Rome, which was so popular that it became extinct in the early Imperial era. Its botanic classification is subject to debate.

Tamarind probably stems from East Africa, but is in our days grown in tropical climate all over the world and is an important ingredient in Asian or Latin American cuisine.

Sesame is one of the most important oil seeds of mankind, yet little of the crop is used as a spice.

Garcinia Cambogia Side Effects Garcinia Cambogia has become an extremely popular weight loss supplement in the last few years because it boosts metabolism and burns fat.

Specialties containing sesame are found all over the Old World, from Europe to Korea.

Today’s African cooking is dominated by Arabic influences, mostly so in the North and East, where Islâm prevails. In the South, there is much colonial influence, both by European colonists and immigrants from India and Malaysia. East Africa has absorbed Arabic and Indian cooking techniques and developed a unique cuisine by blending foreign influences with local traditions. Cooking in West and Central Africa has conserved its distinct character and is hardly comparable to any other culinary style.

In West Africa, e. g. in Nigeria, Cameroon, Ghana, Benin, food is often very pungent due to the use of extrahot chiles that have been imported from the Caribbean. Other important flavourings are dried fish products, smoked meats and toasted peanuts; the typical cooking medium is unrefined palm oil (from Elaeis guineensis ) whose flavour also contributes significantly to the character of West African cooking. Furthermore, a number of local spices are used that are, however, hardly available outside the region (except grains of paradise and, if one is very lucky, negro pepper).

In North Africa, however, subtle spice mixtures based on cumin and coriander dominate, and aromatic Asian spices are popular. See cubeb pepper about the exceedingly complex mixture ras el hanout. Arabic or Indian influence is manifest in spice mixtures like Tunisian gГўlat dagga (see grains of paradise) and Ethiopian berbere (see long pepper).

Quite many spices of other continents are grown in today’s tropical Africa, where they are mostly planted as cash crops and exported. Nigeria, for instance, is a large producer of ginger. The tiny but fertile islands East of Africa are sources for several of the finest spices for European consumers: Réunion (formerly known as Bourbon ) exports vanilla and allspice, and Zanzibar has long outgrown Indonesia as the major clove producing country.

I don’t know much about other native African spices, which of course does not mean that those do not exist. For example, various scented pelargoniums are native to South Africa; they are often referred to as scented geraniums but belong not to genus Geranium but Pelargonium , which is closely related but distinct ( Geraniaceae/Geraniales ). These herbs have an amazing spectrum of different flavours, most often lemony or rose-like floral, but there are also types with fragrance resembling mint, cinnamon and even nutmeg. Nevertheless, these astonishing plants have not yet found much application in cooking, although a few varieties are grown for the perfume industry.

Also in West Africa, the potentials of indigenous spices have not yet been exploited. Most of the native West African spices are unavailable in the rest of the world. In some cases, like the akob bark and felom fruits (seeds?), I don’t even know the botanical identity. Some more West African spices are mentioned in the below list.

Several species of genus Aframomum (Zingiberaceae) yield edible fruits and pungent seeds, e. g., Aframomum danielli and Aframomum citratum ( mbongo spice ) See also grains of paradise

The related genus Amomum also has representatives growing in the tropic belt from Senegal to Ethiopia which are used locally. Some of these have been traded as cardamom adulterants or surrogates in the past. See also black cardamom.

Furthermore, there are African pepper species like Piper clusii (see cubeb pepper).

Another source of pungent flavour might be found in the numerous indigenous Zanthoxylum species (Rutaceae) found in tropical Africa, but the literature is scarce (see Sichuan pepper about Asian relatives).

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