Garcinia cambogia safety data

Garcinia cambogia safety data
Relatively speaking, compared to many supplements available to consumers, Garcinia and HCA are fairly mild.

Garcinia Cambogia: Safe for Weight Loss?

In this Article

In this Article

In this Article

Garcinia cambogia, a tropical fruit also known as the Malabar tamarind, is a popular weight-loss supplement. People say it blocks your body's ability to make fat and it puts the brakes on your appetite. It could help keep blood sugar and cholesterol levels in check, too. You'll find it in bottles on the shelf at the store as well as mixed with other ingredients in diet products.

Does it live up to its hype? Maybe a little, but it might not be worth it.

How It Works

The active ingredient in the fruit's rind, hydroxycitric acid, or HCA, has boosted fat-burning and cut back appetite in studies. It appears to block an enzyme called citrate lyase, which your body uses to make fat. It also raises levels of the brain chemical serotonin, which may make you feel less hungry.

But actual weight loss results aren't impressive. A review published in the Journal of Obesityfound that people who took garcinia cambogia in studies lost about 2 pounds more than people who didn't take it. The reviewers couldn't say for sure that the weight loss was because of the supplement. It could have been from the lower-calorie diet and exercise programs the people in the studies typically followed. Better studies are needed to find out if HCA really helps people lose a lot of weight and keep it off.

Type 2 Diabetes and High Cholesterol

Garcinia cambogia may make it easier for your body to use glucose, the sugar your cells need for energy. Mice that got garcinia cambogia in one study had lower insulin levels than mice that didn't. That's another reason, besides weight loss, that people with diabetes are interested in it. However, if you're taking garcinia cambogia along with a medication to control your blood sugar, your glucose could get dangerously low.

Some research has found that garcinia cambogia can also improve cholesterol levels, lowering triglycerides and LDL (the "bad" cholesterol) and raising HDL (the "good" cholesterol). But you shouldn't use it if you're already on a prescription for your cholesterol.

Possible Side Effects

When you take garcinia cambogia, you might get:

In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration warned everyone to stop using a weight-loss product that contained garcinia cambogia because some people taking it got serious liver problems. The product had other ingredients, too, so it's not clear that garcinia cambogia was to blame. While some research suggests the supplement is safe for your liver, other research says no.

Garcinia cambogia may interact badly with:

You definitely don't want to use it when you're pregnant or nursing, or if you have kidney or liver problems.

Yes, there are other ingredients in Garcinia cambogia, including calcium, phosphorus, iron, and thiamine, but none of these ingredients are available in high enough doses to compete with the benefits provided by HCA.

It is possible that manic symptoms may emerge as a side effect.

To Buy or Not to Buy

Since study results are mixed, you should talk with your doctor to help you decide if taking garcinia cambogia is a good idea. Even if it's safe, it may not help you lose much weight. It's probably wiser to spend your money on healthy food or an exercise DVD.

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NYU Langone Medical Center: "Weight Loss Aids."

Byrne, S. Consumer Reports, March 24, 2014.

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Leonhardt, M. Nutrition, October 2004.

Hayamizu, K. Fitoterapia, April 2003.

Preuss, H. Nutrition Research, January 2004.

Preuss, H. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, May 2004.

Preuss, H. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research, February 2005.

Drugs.com: "Garcinia (hydroxycitric acid)."

Kim, Y. World Journal of Gastroenterology, Aug. 7, 2013.

Stohs, S. Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, November 2010.

Clouatre, D. World Journal of Gastroenterology, Nov. 28, 2013.

Marquez, F. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Issue 7, 2012.

Medscape: "Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists."

Garcinia Cambogia

On This Page

This fact sheet provides basic information about garcinia cambogia—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for more information.

Common Names: garcinia cambogia, garcinia, Malabar tamarind, brindle berry

Background

  • Garcinia cambogia (Malabar tamarind) is native to India and Southeast Asia. The rind of its fruit is used to flavor fish curries and preserve food.
  • The rind contains a chemical called hydroxycitric acid (HCA), which has been studied for its effect on appetite. Garcinia cambogia supplements with HCA are marketed for weight loss.
  • Garcinia cambogia has also been used as a dietary supplement for rheumatism, intestinal problems, and other conditions.
  • Garcinia cambogia is made into a tea, capsules, extracts, tablets, and lotion.

How Much Do We Know?

  • Garcinia cambogia has been studied for weight loss, but there aren’t a lot of recent, reliable studies on its effectiveness.

What Have We Learned?

  • There’s no convincing evidence that garcinia cambogia will help you lose weight or control cholesterol.
  • In a very small study, women who were overweight were given garcinia cambogia extract or a placebo for 60 days.

    It was first introduced by a famous TV Doctor, Dr.Oz.

    The equivalent HCA dose in the trials ranged from 900 to 2,800 mg/day (15 to 47 mg/kg/day).

    Triglyceride levels of the participants getting garcinia cambogia decreased by almost one-third. Triglycerides are a type of fat in blood and high levels may raise a person’s risk of developing heart disease. The participants’ HDL (the “good” cholesterol), LDL (the “bad” cholesterol), total cholesterol, and body weight didn’t change.

  • In another study, people who were overweight were given either garcinia cambogia extract, soy leaf extract, or a placebo. After 10 weeks, none of the supplements promoted weight loss or lowered total cholesterol.

What Do We Know About Safety?

  • Taking garcinia cambogia for short periods (12 weeks or less) appears safe for most people.

Keep in Mind

  • Tell all your health care providers about any complementary or integrative health approaches you use. Give them a full picture of what you do to manage your health. This will help ensure coordinated and safe care.

Key References

  • Astell KJ, Mathai ML, Su XQ. Plant extracts with appetite suppressing properties for body weight control: a systematic review of double blind randomized controlled clinical trials.Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2013;21(4):407-416.
  • Garcinia. Natural Medicines Web site. Accessed at naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com on April 10, 2015. [Database subscription].
  • Greenway F. Garcinia. In: Coates PM, Betz JM, Blackman MR, et al., eds. Encyclopedia of Dietary Supplements. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Informa Healthcare; 2010:307-313.
  • Kim JE, Jeon SM, Park KH, et al. Does Glycine max leaves or Garcinia cambogia promote weight-loss or lower plasma cholesterol in overweight individuals: a randomized control trial. Nutrition Journal. 2011;10:94.
  • Lopez AM, Kornegay J, Hendrickson RG. Serotonin toxicity associated with Garcinia cambogia over-the-counter supplement. Journal of Medical Toxicology. 2014;10(4):399-401.
  • Semwal RB, Semwal DK, Vermaak I, et al. A comprehensive scientific overview of Garcinia cambogia. Fitoterapia. 2015;102:134-148.
  • Vasques CA, Schneider R, Klein-Júnior LC, et al. Hypolipemic effect of Garcinia cambogia in obese women.Phytotherapy Research. 2014;28(6):887-891.

Related Topics

This publication is not copyrighted and is in the public domain. Duplication is encouraged.

NCCIH has provided this material for your information. It is not intended to substitute for the medical expertise and advise of your primary health care provider.

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U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health

This page last modified September 24, 2017

National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland 20892

Garcinia Cambogia – is it safe?

Recently a weight loss shake containing garcinia and green tea was in the news – not for good reasons however!

The weight loss shake was taken by an Australian man who developed liver failure and required a liver transplant. The weight loss supplement was blamed and the question was – is it the garcinia, the green tea or whatever else is in the shake?

Important facts about this man’s diet and lifestyle or antecedent predisposing factors for liver disease were not revealed or discussed, so it is impossible to really know what caused his liver failure. Typically, the ever hungry sensationist media used this opportunity to disparage dietary and weight loss supplements saying they are unregulated and potentially dangerous!

Well, this is ridiculous as there is a wealth of scientific literature on herbal medicine, vitamins and minerals and the manufacture of dietary supplements is regulated by the TGA in Australia and the FDA in the USA. It is important to only take supplements certified by GMP practices and to get health advice from your practitioner before taking supplements.

The phenomena of selective publishing and selective reporting by drug companies and the media has gone on for many years and the public are often unaware of the liver toxic side effects of many prescribed drugs such as anti-fungal drugs, antibiotics, statins, anti-inflammatory drugs and immune-suppressant dugs. Yes, we are a very trusting public and we should and need to ask more questions about side effects of drugs and supplements. It is not a good idea to take anything long term without checking for potential side effects.

One of the most liver toxic over the counter drugs is paracetamol (also known as acetaminophen), which is used extensively by people with arthritis and other types of pain. This drug is also promoted to parents as a treatment for children with pain or fever and is often given frequently over several days. Most parents are unaware that paracetamol is the leading cause of acute liver failure in children and the need for liver transplants in children. This should make the news headlines but it does not – why not ?

You can only tell if it is safe for you after consulting with your doctor.

Another case of selective reporting due to vested interests.

In a child with a fever I recommend vigilant observation, vitamin C, liquid selenium, iodine and zinc and sponging down in a tepid bath along with plenty of fluids. Unfortunately, we have been brainwashed into reaching first for the paracetamol and think that this is 100% safe. As always it is important to see your health care practitioner.

Dr. Oz made garcinia cambogia famous as a possible weight loss tool and what was otherwise a obscure, lowly fruit grown in only a few regions of the world has now become the center of many weight loss programs. For centuries, garcinia cambogia resided in dry, dusty bags only to be sold as a curry supplement and for the occasional therapeutic remedy. Today, however, it is one of the world’s most popular weight loss supplements and has not been shown to be dangerous.

Origin of Garcinia Cambogia

Garcinia cambogia is just one of the 300 to 500 species in the Garcinia genus, all of which are native to regions in Asia, Australia, Polynesia, and southern and tropical Africa. Thailand, Myanmar and Malaysia are also well acquainted with the garcinia cambogia. In these countries, the Muslim population often includes the dried rind as a flavorful pickle or condiment.

Taste of Garcinia Cambogia

The taste of Malabar tamarind is sour and acidic, which contributes to its reputation as a digestive aid in Ayurveda. Although there’s a bit of sweetness to the fruit, the overwhelming sourness of it makes it unpalatable to eat raw. As such, the fruit – particularly the rind – is used to enhance the zest of several dishes. Many Indians use the fruit as a substitute to the sour tamarind because of its likeness in taste.

Health Benefits of Garcinia Cambogia

In Ayurvedic medicine, the garcinia fruit treats ailments from rheumatism, arthritis, digestive disorders to gum disease. It also treats worms, parasites, dysentery, purgatives, and, allegedly, tumors.

The most touted compound of the Malabar tamarind is its hydroxycitric acid or, HCA. Supplement specialists promote its extracts as a fat-burning, metabolism-boosting, appetite-suppressing weight loss mechanism. The claim is that HCA inhibits an ezyme, citrate lyase, from converting carbohydrates into fat. This process compels the body to burn the carbs, instead of the normal reaction of storing them as fat.

Safety and Side Effects of Garcinia Cambogia

A study at Spain’s Virgili University showed that taking garcinia cambogia extracts produced no harmful or adverse side effects.

Though the garcinia fruit extract might be safe on its own, it’s best to verify the safety of other ingredients.

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Supplement manufacturers often add a cocktail of other herbs, fruits, and extracts. Anecdotally, people who have taken supplements write of a few interesting effects in the comment section of garcinia cambogia extract websites. Some complain of dizziness and shortness of breath, stomach pains, diarrhoea, headaches and cramps. Though these side effects may be the result of supplement additives, it’s best to use any supplement with caution.

Research on the effect of Garcinia on weight loss varies. Some research shows that taking Garcinia extract that contains 50% hydroxycitric acid (HCA) for 8-12 weeks doesn’t decrease fat breakdown or energy expenditure in overweight people. However, other research suggests that it might improve weight loss when taken for 12 weeks. Taking a specific Garcinia product containing 60% HCA by mouth in three doses daily 30 to 60 minutes before meals for 8 weeks, together with a healthy diet, seems to improve weight loss more than just diet alone. Reasons for the inconsistent results might be the dose, duration of treatment, or formulation of Garcinia extract that was used. Garcinia is probably safe for most people when taken by mouth for 12 weeks or less. Long-term safety is unknown. Excessive doses of garcinia can cause nausea, digestive tract discomfort, and headache.

There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking Garcinia if you are pregnant or breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

It is always more effective and safer to combine garcinia with a healthy low carbohydrate diet and exercise program. I have used garcinia supplements in my patients for 20 years and have never seen any adverse effects, but as always stay under the supervision of your health care practitioner.

Scientific studies

A 1973 study published in Lipids indicate suppressed food intake when HCA was administered to animals. Another 2009 study published in Nutritional Research found that animals had a decreased body weight gain.

One 2004 study published in Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism prescribed 60 overweight adults in India to take HCA and niacin-bound chromium, and another to take a placebo. Both groups ate 2,000 kcal a day and did a walking program. At the end of the trial, the HCA group lost 1% more weight (not significant), but the group taking HCA also left more food on their plate.

A 2013 study published in Investigational New Drugs found that using a combination of molecules—of which HCA is included—targeting cancer metabolism resulted in decreased tumor growth in mice.

According to a study published in the Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, short-term HCA supplementation enhances athletic performance and endurance.

A 2007 study published in Nutrition Research found that a mixture of psyllium and HCA reduced body weight gain and body fat when tested in rats.