Garcinia cambogia side effects high blood pressure
So, you’ll have more stamina daily, and less fat on your body.
Garcinia Cambogia and High Blood Pressure
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Garcinia Cambogia supplement is one of the popular weight loss supplements. It helps to curb hunger by lowering your food consumption. Consequently, one eats only a portion of food that is helpful to the body by maintaining the right calorie intake. In fact, the body ensures that serotin levels increase in the body which is a key chemical that controls appetite. Secondly, the hydroxycitric acid in the supplement ensures that the citrate lyase enzyme does not work hence; carbohydrates are not converted into fat tissues. In addition, the diet supplement boosts the level of metabolism which helps the body burn the already existing fat. This makes the body combat excess fat using natural methods.
However, many people have raised concerns on the effect of the natural supplement to people who have high blood pressure. Let’s look at Garcinia Cambogia and high blood pressure in details;
What is high blood pressure?
This is a hereditary or acquired condition where pressure is exerted on the walls of the arteries. The blood flows through the blood vessels at higher than the normal pressure. Sometimes, it can come as a result of lifestyle choices. People suffering from high blood pressure are at a risk of developing stroke and heart disease. It can develop if you have congenital defects of blood vessels or if you are suffering from kidney related issues. In addition, it can come as a result of using decongestants and pain relievers.
Relationship between Garcinia Cambogia and high blood pressure
First, we need to understand the effect of the supplement on people with high blood pressure. Secondly, we need to identify whether the ailment is compatible with the weight loss pills. To start with, the supplement does not contain stimulants which can bring negative effects to people suffering from high blood pressure. So far, there are no clinical studies that proof that the weight loss supplement affects those people who are suffering from high blood pressure. Therefore you can use the diet supplement if you have high blood pressure without posing any danger. In fact, many people have used the supplement when they are under blood pressure medication without any negative effect. However, if you want to take the weight loss supplement, it’s recommended that you talk to your doctor first. On the other hand, you should ensure you follow strict medical guidelines .For instance, you should not take too much of the weight loss pills or too little of BP medication. Instead, you should balance the two as prescribed.
Impact of HCA and blood pressure
Hydroxycitric acid is a major component of the Garcinia Cambogia supplement. It has similar effects just like taking other citrus fruits. According to a recent research, it’s safe for an individual to introduce the supplement into the diet to achieve the desired results.
Considerations before taking the supplement
First, you need to adhere to the high pressure dose prescribed by the doctor. In fact, it’s always advisable to remain on the safety zone. This is important since the doctor will identify whether it’s safe to mix the supplement with BP medications. Although there is no evidence that the product has affected those with high blood pressure, you should stop the medication immediately if you note any unusual sign. If the current blood pressure dosage can bring possible side effects, you should discuss with your doctor on how you can get a complementary blood pressure medicine. On the other hand, you need to ask yourself if you really have to take the supplement. If you don’t have to, it’s recommended that you seek other alternative methods of losing weight.
Scientific studies prove that, Garcinia Cambogia is safe for use by people with high blood pressure condition. The supplement is 100% natural and harmless. First, it’s clear that the product does not increase blood pressure. Secondly, taking the diet supplement comes with array of benefits that aids in losing weight. However; one must consider a few things. For instance, you should not take the supplement if it will have negative effect with your blood pressure medication. On the other hand; if your doctor discovers that the supplement is weakening the BP medication, you should stop immediately. Ensure you are fully aware of your current medication limits. In addition, you should only take original high-quality products that are recommended safe for use.
Garcinia (hydroxycitric acid)
Scientific Name(s): Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn.) Desr. Family: Clusiaceae (Guttiferae)
Common Name(s): Malabar tamarind , hydroxycitric acid ( HCA )
The medical literature primarily documents weight loss and lipid-lowering activity for the plant. However, trials supporting its use are limited.
The dosages of G. cambogia extract in clinical trials ranged from 1,500 to 4,667 mg/day (25 to 78 mg/kg/day). The equivalent hydroxycitric acid (HCA) dose in the trials ranged from 900 to 2,800 mg/day (15 to 47 mg/kg/day). G. cambogia is available in capsule or tablet form with a maximum dose of 1,500 mg/day.
Avoid use if there is a known allergy or hypersensitivity to any components of G. cambogia .
Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.
The herb has documented drug interactions.
At least 15 clinical studies involving approximately 900 patients document very mild adverse reactions. Most adverse reactions included headache, dizziness, dry mouth, and GI complaints such as nausea and diarrhea.
Toxicology studies resulted in no toxicity or deaths in animals at dosages of HCA 5,000 mg/kg, equivalent to 350 g or 233 times the maximum dosage of 1.5 g/day of HCA.
If you need to return or exchange an item you can send it back at no cost or take it to your neighborhood store.
In patients taking certain combination weight-loss supplements containing G. cambogia , severe or even fatal hepatotoxicity may occur.
The genus Garcinia is mainly distributed in tropical regions and includes approximately 200 species. G. cambogia belongs to the family Guttiferae and is found in India, Malaysia, and Africa. G. cambogia is commonly found in evergreen or semievergreen forests of southwest India, where 36 other species have been documented. 1 , 2 The plant species has variability in its branching pattern, fruit color, shape, and size. 1 The tree is small-to-medium in size with drooping branches. The leaves are dark green and glossy, oval-shaped with a narrow end, 5 to 12 cm in length, and 2 to 7 cm around. The tree is tolerant to drought and flowers during the hot season. The yellow, orange, or red fruit ripens during the rainy season and contains HCA. It is ovoid in shape, 5 centimeters around, has 6 to 8 seeds, and is listed in the US Department of Agriculture inventory of perennial edible fruits. 2
Dried fruit rinds have been used extensively for centuries throughout Southeast Asia for culinary purposes as a condiment and flavoring agent in place of tamarind or lemon. Additional culinary uses include the flavoring of curries, meat, and seafood. The fruit extract has been used as a flavoring agent for beverages and gourmet spices, as well as a carminative, thereby helping to prevent the formation of gas in the GI tract after a meal. HCA and other organic acids from the dried rind combined with salt help lower pH and provide a bacteriostatic effect used in curing fish. The herb is considered beneficial for overall health in the traditional Ayurvedic medical system. Rheumatism and bowel complaints are treated with a decoction of the fruit rind. A rinse is used from the herbal extract in veterinary medicine for some diseases of the mouth in cattle. HCA has also become popular as an ingredient for weight loss. 2 , 3 , 4
HCA is the primary medicinal component contained in the fruit rinds of G. cambogia . 5 HCA is present as up to 30% by weight in the pericarp of G. cambogia fruit. 6 Xanthones, xanthone derivatives, and polyisoprenylated benzophenones have been isolated. 6 , 7 Some salts used in commercial products are water soluble and bioavailable, and are a good source of calcium (495 mg) and potassium (720 mg). 8 Studies also document interest in production of HCA by using microorganisms. 9 , 10
Uses and Pharmacology
The medical literature primarily documents research on the weight loss and lipid-lowering activity of the plant.
In vitro and animal data
In 2 experiments using the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, overnight exposure to G. cambogia extract caused an upregulation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity and an upregulation of the level of HMG-CoA reductase resulting in decreased cholesterol synthesis. 11 Flavonoids from the plant reduced lipid levels in normal and hypercholesterolemic rats. 7 Reductions were also documented in triglycerides, phospholipids, and free fatty acids. The mechanism of action for the flavonoids may involve: (1) reducing the rate of lipogenesis by reducing the activities of lipogenic enzymes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase; and (2) increasing the rate of degradation of cholesterol leading to higher levels of hepatic and fecal bile acids, as well as neutral sterols in rats treated with the herb. While dexamethasone typically elevates lipid profiles, G. cambogia extract maintained normal lipid levels in rats administered dexamethasone. 12
In a 4-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 150 obese patients were treated with a dietary supplement ( G. cambogia extract 55 mg, chitosan 240 mg, and chrome 19 mg) together with a weight reduction regimen. Treatment groups administered the dietary supplement showed statistically significant dose-related reductions in weight, total and LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides, and improvement in high density lipoprotein cholesterol. 13
The suggested mechanism of action involves HCA-inhibiting lipogenesis, increasing lipid oxidation, and reducing food intake. 3 , 14
A study in obese rats found high doses of HCA-containing G. cambogia (154 mmol HCA/kg diet) effective in suppressing epididymal adipose tissue. This same study also found testicular atrophy and toxicity at dosages of 778 mg HCA/kg body weight/day (102 mmol HCA/kg diet) and higher. 4 Another study in rats administered a high-fat diet and a mixture of G. cambogia extract, soypeptide, and L-carnitine, led to a reduction in body weight and accumulation of visceral fat mass. 15 The mixture also improved blood and hepatic lipid concentrations or the induced dyslipidemia in the rats. Other combination products with G. cambogia are also effective in reducing weight gain and improving dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and fatty liver in mice. 16 The antiobesity effect involves modulation of several genes associated with visceral adipogenesis. One study in adult, nonobese cats found no effect on fat-free mass or energy expenditure. 17
In an 8-week randomized clinical trial, 40 patients were given either placebo or G. cambogia extract (500 mg/capsule) by mouth before each meal. Patients administered the extract exhibited weight loss and improvement in cholesterol and triglycerides when compared with the placebo group. 2
In a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 40 obese patients were treated with a combination supplement containing G. cambogia 50 mg as well as a 1,200 calorie diet per day.
Effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on lipids and lipoprotein composition in dexamethasone administered rats.
I can’t emphasize enough that the test was carried out using only pure Garcinia Cambogia.
Two tablets of the supplement were taken by mouth 3 times a day after meals. The treatment group attained a 3.5 kg weight loss versus 1.2 kg on placebo, and a more than 85% reduction in fat loss in body composition measurements. The majority of the active group participants did not follow the diet regimen. 18
In a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial, 89 mildly overweight women were treated with a 1,200 kcal diet along with 2 caplets of G. cambogia 400 mg or matched placebo 3 times a day before each meal. At the end of the trial, both groups lost weight, but the treatment group achieved greater reduction in body weight. G. cambogia had no effect on appetitive variables. 14
Numerous studies document the safety profile of the calcium-potassium double salt of 60% HCA preparation (HCA-SX), as well as its bioavailability and efficacy in helping patients attain a healthy body weight. 3 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23
An 8-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study examined the efficacy of HCA-SX in 54 overweight patients. The treatment group was administered a combination supplement containing G. cambogia 500 mg 3 times a day while the control group received the placebo. All patients were asked to maintain a low-fat diet and drink 64 oz of water per day. The treatment group lost an average weight of 11.14 lb/person as compared with the control group, which lost an average of 4.2 lb/person. 19
Another 8-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study examined the efficacy of HCA in 60 obese patients. The dosage regimen for HCA was 400 mg 3 times a day before each meal. All patients were on a low-fat diet and also instructed to exercise 3 times a week. Results indicated weight loss for the experimental group compared with the placebo group and that 87% of the weight loss in the HCA group was because of fat loss. Appetite scores were also reduced in the HCA-treated group. 19
Visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat accumulation were reduced in 39 patients over 16 weeks in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The dosage regimen included HCA 1,000 mg/day versus placebo. At the end of the treatment, both groups were administered placebo for 4 weeks and no rebound effect was documented. 24
Another clinical study documented that treatment with HCA failed to produce weight change and fat mass change in patients. 25 However, the design of the clinical trial, the lack of bioavailability, and dosage of HCA used have been criticized. 2
Other pharmacologic activity
Some studies found that supplementation with G. cambogia can reduce oxidative damage. 26
The fruit contains xanthones, which inhibit pre-neoplastic lesions in mammary and colon cancer. The xanthones may also induce apoptosis in mouth, leukemia, breast, gastric, and lung cancer cell lines in vitro. 27
Glucose metabolism may be improved by lowering serum insulin levels in mice treated with G. cambogia . Leptin is a hormone associated with appetite control. G. cambogia may have leptin-like activity as mice treated with G. cambogia had decreased serum leptin levels and a reduced leptin/white adipose tissue ratio. 28 HCA treatment delayed and reduced intestinal glucose absorption in rats; the treatment causes delayed intestinal absorption of glucose rather than delayed gastric emptying. 29
HCA promoted lipid oxidation and reduced carbohydrate use in mice at rest and during running. 30 The utilization of respiratory gases was reduced for mice treated with HCA at rest and during exercise. Some studies on herbal coffee supplements with HCA showed an increase in resting energy expenditure to enhance metabolic rates and promote weight and fat loss. 31 , 32
Antiulcer activity was observed against induced gastric mucosal injury in rats with pretreatment of G. cambogia extract that decreased volume and acidity of gastric juice. 33 A similar study in rats found activity against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers. 34 The anti-inflammatory activity of G. cambogia protected against induced colitis in rats. 35
Red blood cell count
A G. cambogia extract caused an increase in the red blood cell (RBC) count in rat tissue. The activity may be (1) associated with the iron in G. cambogia , as iron is an erythropoietic agent; (2) antioxidant activity and may decrease the rate of oxidant-induced hemolysis, which increases the life span of the RBC; or (3) the content of bioflavonoids in the plant, which may increase the level of peripheral testosterone, which can stimulate erythropoiesis in humans. 36
The dosages of G. cambogia extract in clinical trials ranged from 1,500 to 4,667 mg/day (25 to 78 mg/kg/day). The equivalent HCA dose in the trials ranged from 900 to 2,800 mg/day (15 to 47 mg/kg/day). 2 , 14 , 18 , 19 , 23 , 24 , 25 G. cambogia is available in capsule or tablet form with a maximum dose of 1,500 mg/day.
Due to lack of clinical and scientific information, use should be avoided during pregnancy and lactation. One animal study in rats documented decreased maternal body weight gain during gestation. 37
In patients taking medications for diabetes by mouth or insulin, G. cambogia may lower blood sugar levels. 28 , 29
G. cambogia contains iron and thus may have additive adverse reactions for patients taking medications for anemia. 36
Potassium and calcium supplements
Some commercial G. cambogia products contain adequate amounts of potassium and calcium.
So is the hottest thing in natural weight loss any different?
8 Caution is advised for patients taking medications for heart disease, high blood pressure, or arrhythmia while supplementing with any product containing this herb.
A mouse study using a commercial polyherbal product containing G. cambogia found a potential serotonergic effect on food intake. Caution is advised for patients being treated for pain or taking medications for any psychiatric condition. 38
Singulair (or leukotriene receptor antagonists)
One case report documented fatal liver failure in a patient taking Singulair and 2 dietary supplements, one of which included G. cambogia and citrus derivatives. 39
A case report of rhabdomyolysisis is documented in a patient taking a combination herbal medicine containing G. cambogia . 40
In one case report, the international normalized ratio of a patient returned to normal after he stopped taking a combination herbal product containing G. cambogia . 41
A total of 15 clinical studies involving approximately 900 patients documented very mild adverse reactions. Most adverse reactions included headache, dizziness, dry mouth, and GI complaints such as nausea and diarrhea. 2 , 42
Toxicology studies resulted in no toxicity or deaths in animals at HCA dosages of 5,000 mg/kg, equivalent to 350 g or 233 times the maximum dose of 1.5 g/day of HCA. 5 In patients taking certain combination weight-loss supplements containing G. cambogia , severe or even fatal hepatotoxicity may occur. 43 , 44 Some animal studies document testicular toxicity, 4 , 45 while other studies do not. 46 , 47
No unusual electrocardiographic effects (QTc interval or other electrocardiograph variables) were seen over 5 hours in patients taking half the recommended dose of a multicomponent weight loss supplement containing G. cambogia . 48 Patients receiving G. cambogia extract (1,667.3 mg/kg equivalent to 1,000 mg HCA/day) for 12 weeks exhibited no reproductive toxicity on serum testosterone, estrone, and estradiol levels. 49
2. Soni MG, Burdock GA, Preuss HG, Stohs SJ, Ohia SE, Bagchi D. Safety assessment of (-)-hydroxycitric acid and Super CitriMax, a novel calcium/potassium salt. Food Chem Toxicol . 2004;42(9):1513-1529.
3. Ohia SE, Opere CA, LeDay AM, Bagchi M, Bagchi D, Stohs SJ. Safety and mechanism of appetite suppression by a novel hydroxycitric acid extract (HCA-SX). Mol Cell Biochem . 2002;238(1-2):89-103.
4. Saito M, Ueno M, Ogino S, Kubo K, Nagata J, Takeuchi M. High dose of Garcinia cambogia is effective in suppressing fat accumulation in developing male Zucker obese rats, but highly toxic to the testis. Food Chem Toxicol . 2005;43(3):411-419.
5. Jena BS, Jayaprakasha GK, Singh RP, Sakariah KK. Chemistry and biochemistry of (-)-hydroxycitric acid from Garcinia . J Agric Food Chem . 2002;50(1):10-22.
6. Masullo M, Bassarello C, Suzuki H, Pizza C, Piacente S. Polyisoprenylated benzophenones and an unusual polyisoprenylated tetracyclic xanthone from the fruits of Garcinia cambogia . J Agric Food Chem . 2008;56(13):5205-5210.
7. Koshy AS, Anila L, Vijayalakshmi NR. Flavonoids from Garcinia cambogia lower lipid levels in hypercholesterolemic rats. Food Chem . 2001;72(3):289-294.
8. Downs BW, Bagchi M, Subbaraju GV, Shara MA, Preuss HG, Bagchi D. Bioefficacy of a novel calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid. Mutat Res . 2005;579(1-2):149-162.
9. Hida H, Yamada T, Yamada Y. Production of hydroxycitric acid by microorganisms. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem . 2005;69(8):1555-1561.
10. Yamada T, Hida H, Yamada Y. Chemistry, physiological properties, and microbial production of hydroxycitric acid. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol . 2007;75(5):977-982.
11. Berkhout TA, Havekes LM, Pearce NJ, Groot PH. The effect of (-)-hydroxycitrate on the activity of the low-density-lipoprotein receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase levels in the human hepatoma cell line Hep G2. Biochem J . 1990;272(1):181-186.
12. Mahendran P, Devi CS. Effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on lipids and lipoprotein composition in dexamethasone administered rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol . 2001;45(3):345-350.
13. Girola M, De Bernardi M, Contos S, et al. Dose effect in lipid-lowering activity of a new dietary integrator (chitosan), Garcinia combogia extract and chrome. Acta Toxicol Ther . 1996;17(1):25-40.
14. Mattes RD, Bormann L. Effects of (-)-hydroxycitric acid on appetitive variables. Physiol Behav . 2000;71(1-2):87-94.
15. Kim YJ, Kim KY, Kim MS, Lee JH, Lee KP, Park T. A mixture of the aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia , soy peptide and L: -carnitine reduces the accumulation of visceral fat mass in rats rendered obese by a high fat diet. Genes Nutr . 2008;2(4):353-358.
16. Kim KY, Lee HN, Kim YJ, Park T. Garcinia cambogia extract ameliorates visceral adiposity in C57BL/6J mice fed on a high-fat diet. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem . 2008;72(7):1772-1780.
17. Leray V, Dumon H, Martin L, et al. No effect of conjugated linoleic acid or Garcinia cambogia on fat-free mass, and energy expenditure in normal cats. J Nutr . 2006;136(suppl 7):1982S-1984S.
18. Thom E. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a new weight-reducing agent of natural origin. J Int Med Res . 2000;28(5):229-233.
19. Lau FC, Bagchi M, Sen C, Roy S, Bagchi D. Nutrigenomic analysis of diet-gene interactions on functional supplements for weight management. Curr Genomics . 2008;9(4):239-251.
20. Talpur N, Echard BW, Yasmin T, Bagchi D, Preuss HG.
This is pretty incredible in combination with the five facts listed above.
Effects of niacin-bound chromium, Maitake mushroom fraction SX and (-)-hydroxycitric acid on the metabolic syndrome in aged diabetic Zucker fatty rats. Mol Cell Biochem . 2003;252(1-2):369-377.
21. Bagchi D, Deshmukh NS, Soni MG, Bagchi M. Safety of a novel calcium/potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid: I. Two generation reproduction toxicity study. Toxicol Lett . 2007;172(suppl 1):S190.
22. Asghar M, Monjok E, Kouamou G, Ohia SE, Bagchi D, Lokhandwala MF. Super CitriMax (HCA-SX) attenuates increases in oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, and body weight in developing obese Zucker rats. Mol Cell Biochem . 2007;304(1-2):93-99.
23. Preuss HG, Rao CV, Garis R, et al. An overview of the safety and efficacy of a novel, natural(-)-hydroxycitric acid extract (HCA-SX) for weight management. J Med . 2004;35(1-6):33-48.
24. Hayamizu K, Ishii Y, Kaneko I, et al. Effects of Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid) on visceral fat accumulation: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. CurrTher Res Clin Exp . 2003;64(8):551-567.
25. Heymsfield SB, Allison DB, Vasselli JR, Pietrobelli A, Greenfield D, Nunez C. Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid) as a potential antiobesity agent: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA . 1998;280(18):1596-1600.
26. Yonei Y, Takahashi Y, Hibino S, Watanabe M, Yoshioka T. Effects on the human body of a dietary supplement containing L-carnitine and Garcinia cambogia extract: a study using double-blind tests. J Clin Biochem Nutr . 2008;42(2):89-103.
27. Mazzio EA, Soliman KF. In vitro screening for the tumoricidal properties of international medicinal herbs. Phytother Res . 2009;23(3):385-398.
28. Hayamizu K, Hirakawa H, Oikawa D, et al. Effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum leptin and insulin in mice. Fitoterapia . 2003;74(3):267-273.
29. Wielinga PY, Wachters-Hagedoorn RE, Bouter B, et al. Hydroxycitric acid delays intestinal glucose absorption in rats. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol . 2005;288(6):G1144-G1149.
30. Ishihara K, Oyaizu S, Onuki K, Lim K, Fushiki T. Chronic (-)-hydroxycitrate administration spares carbohydrate utilization and promotes lipid oxidation during exercise in mice. J Nutr . 2000;130(12):2990-2995.
31. Hoffman JR, Kang J, Ratamess NA, Jennings PF, Mangine G, Faigenbaum AD. Thermogenic effect from nutritionally enriched coffee consumption. J Int Soc Sports Nutr . 2006;3:35-41.
32. Taylor LW, Wilborn CD, Harvey T, Wismann J, Willoughby DS. Acute effects of ingesting Java Fittrade mark energy extreme functional coffee on resting energy expenditure and hemodynamic responses in male and female coffee drinkers. J Int Soc Sports Nutr . 2007;4:10.
33. Mahendran P, Sabitha KE, Devi CS. Prevention of HCl-ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in rats by Garcinia cambogia extract and its possible mechanism of action. Indian J Exp Biol . 2002;40(1):58-62.
34. Mahendran P, Vanisree AJ, Shyamala Devi CS. The antiulcer activity of Garcinia cambogia extract against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Phytother Res . 2002;16(1):80-83.
35. dos Reis SB, de Oliveira CC, Acedo SC, et al. Attenuation of colitis injury in rats using Garcinia cambogia extract. Phytother Res . 2009;23(3):324-329.
36. Oluyemi KA, Omotuyi IO, Jimoh OR, Adesanya OA, Saalu CL, Josiah SJ. Erythropoietic and anti-obesity effects of Garcinia cambogia (bitter kola) in Wistar rats. Biotechnol Appl Biochem . 2007;46(pt 1):69-72.
37. Deshmukh NS, Bagchi M, Yasmin T, Bagchi D. Safety of a novel calcium/potassium salt of (-) hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX): II. Developmental toxicity study in rats. Toxicol Mech Methods . 2008;18(5):443-451.
38. Kaur G, Kulkarni SK. Investigations on possible serotonergic involvement in effects of OB-200G (polyherbal preparation) on food intake in female mice. Eur J Nutr . 2001;40(3):127-133.
39. Actis GC, Bugianesi E, Ottobrelli A, Rizzetto M. Fatal liver failure following food supplements during chronic treatment with montelukast. Dig Liver Dis . 2007;39(10):953-955.
40. Mansi IA, Huang J. Rhabdomyolysis in response to weight-loss herbal medicine. [Published correction appears in: Am J Med Sci . 2004;328(2):129.] Am J Med Sci . 2004;327(6):356-357.
41. Ferris DJ. Interaction between warfarin and Garcinia cambogia (Fat Burner); a case report. ASHP Midyear Clinical Meeting . 38(DEC): p P-404(D). 2003.
42. Pittler MH, Schmidt K, Ernst E. Adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction: systematic review. Obes Rev . 2005;6(2):93-111.
43. Shim M, Saab S. Severe hepatotoxicity due to Hydroxycut: a case report. Dig Dis Sci . 2009;54(2):406-408.
44. Lobb A. Hepatoxicity associated with weight-loss supplements: a case for better post-marketing surveillance. World J Gastroenterol . 2009;15(14):1786-1787.
45. Anno T, Oono H, Tamura K. Improvement of testicular toxicity in F/344DuCrj male rats fed Ca-type Garcinia cambogia extract by zinc supplemented diets. Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Gakkaishi . 2005;12(3):121-127.
46. Shara M, Ohia SE, Yasmin T, et al. Dose- and time-dependent effects of a novel (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and histopathological data over a period of 90 days. Mol Cell Biochem . 2003;254(1-2):339-346.
47. Burdock G, Soni M, Bagchi M, Bagchi D. Garcinia cambogia toxicity is misleading. [Published correction appears in: Food Chem Toxicol . 2007;45(3):515.] Food Chem Toxicol . 2005;43(11):1683-1684; author reply 1685-1686.
The HCA effects serotonin levels that affect the brains regulatory processes, which affects appetite and mood.
Min B, McBride BF, Kardas MJ, et al. Electrocardiographic effects of an ephedra-free, multicomponent weight-loss supplement in healthy volunteers. Pharmacotherapy . 2005;25(5):654-659.
49. Hayamizu K, Tomi H, Kaneko I, Shen M, Soni MG, Yoshino G. Effects of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum sex hormones in overweight subjects. Fitoterapia . 2008;79(4):255-261.
Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health
29 Things You Didn’t Know About Garcinia Cambogia
What do tapeworms, arsenic, vinegar, and Twinkies have in common? They’ve all been used as weight-loss aids. A supplement produced from an exotic fruit, garcinia cambogia, is the latest weight-loss craze. But the Internet and television are filled with misinformation and hype. Let’s take a look at facts about garcinia cambogia.
1. Garcinia cambogia is grown in Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and parts of Africa.
2. It’s not technically called garcinia cambogia anymore. The tree has a new proper name: Garcinia gummi-gutta.
3. Other names for it are: red mango, Malabar tamarind, pot tamarind, brindal berry, gambooge, and kokum butter oil tree.
4. The fruit of the garcinia cambogia looks like a multi-lobed pumpkin, and is usually green, yellow, or red.
5. It’s normally the size of a large tomato but can grow to grapefruit size.
6. The sour flesh of the garcinia cambogia will pucker your lips. It’s often pickled and used as a condiment.
7. After it’s sun-dried and smoked, the blackened fruit, called kodampoli, gives a tart, smoky flavor to curries. It’s most common in fish curry.
8. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the seeds have a 30 percent fat content. The seeds are sometimes used as a substitute for ghee, clarified butter that’s a common ingredient in Indian food.
9. A number of health claims are made about garcinia cambogia extract. Among the conditions people use it for are: diabetes, cancer, ulcers, diarrhea, and constipation.
10. Its biggest claim to fame is that extract supplements can help speed up weight loss, reduce appetite, and boost exercise endurance.
11. Garcinia cambogia contains a compound called hydroxycitric acid (HCA) that may inhibit an enzyme that helps your body store fat. Theoretically, the fat would instead be burned as calories.
12. Allegedly, garcinia cambogia can increase the levels of the neurotransmitter, serotonin — a feel-good messenger in your body. This may enhance your mood and reduce stress-related eating.
13. The first rigorous research on the effectiveness of garcinia cambogia was conducted in 1998. The study concluded that it doesn’t perform any better than a placebo when it comes to helping you lose weight.
14. A 2011 research review showed that it can cause short-term weight loss, but the effect was small and the studies were flawed.
15. Garcinia cambogia can be found in Hydroxycut. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a consumer warning in 2009 cautioning consumers to immediately stop using Hydroxycut products after reports of jaundice and extreme liver damage in people who used Hydroxycut surfaced.
16. Other health problems associated with Hydroxycut included seizures, cardiovascular disorders, and rhabdomyolysis. However, because Hydroxycut contains many ingredients, it’s difficult to pinpoint the cause.
17. A study from Japan found that rats fed high doses of garcinia cambogia lost significant fat. However, the high doses also caused testicular atrophy.
18. In 2012, pop television doc, Mehmet Oz, announced to his audience that garcinia cambogia is a revolutionary fat buster. The show’s graphics read: “No Exercise. No Diet. No Effort.”
19. In June 2014, Dr. Oz was chided for making unwarranted claims about garcinia cambogia and other products in an appearance before the Senate Subcommittee on Consumer Protection, Product Safety, Insurance, and Data Security.
20. Garcinia cambogia is available in capsules, tablets, powders, and liquids. Capsules should be taken on an empty stomach, 30 minutes to an hour before a meal.
21. According to ConsumerLab.com, many garcinia cambogia supplements don’t contain the amount of garcinia cambogia listed on the label. Instead, they found the doses were either too low or too high. If you take the capsules, buy a reputable brand and make sure they contain at least 50 percent HCA.
22. Most garcinia cambogia supplements also contain other ingredients, some of which might not be listed.
23. When it comes to a recommended dose, most sources provide the recommended dose of HCA rather than garcinia cambogia itself. According to ConsumerLab.com, the recommended dose of garcinia cambogia is 900 mg to 1,500 mg of HCA a day. This is consistent with doses used in a number of studies.
24. Side effects of garcinia cambogia may include: headache, nausea, dizziness, and dry mouth.
25. It isn’t known if garcinia cambogia is safe during pregnancy or while you’re breastfeeding, so it’s best to discontinue use of the supplement during these times.
26. Garcinia cambogia may cause a decrease in blood sugar levels.