Garcinia mangostana medicinal uses
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Amibiasine, Fruit des Rois, Garcinia mangostana, Jus de Xango, Mang Cut, Manggis, Manggistan, Mangosta, Mangostan, Mangostán, Mangostana, Mangostanier, Mangostao, Mangostier, Mangoustanier, Mangouste, Mangoustier, Manguita, Meseter, Queen of Fru.
See All Names Amibiasine, Fruit des Rois, Garcinia mangostana, Jus de Xango, Mang Cut, Manggis, Manggistan, Mangosta, Mangostan, Mangostán, Mangostana, Mangostanier, Mangostao, Mangostier, Mangoustanier, Mangouste, Mangoustier, Manguita, Meseter, Queen of Fruits, Sementah, Semetah, Xango, Xango Juice.
MANGOSTEEN Overview Information
Mangosteen is a tropical fruit. The fruit, fruit juice, rind, twig, and bark are used as medicine.
How does it work?
The fruit rind contains tannins. These might help for diarrhea. But there is no scientific information about whether mangosteen works for any medical condition.
MANGOSTEEN Uses & Effectiveness
Insufficient Evidence for:
- Urinary tract infections (UTIs).
- Menstrual disorders.
- Other conditions.
MANGOSTEEN Side Effects & Safety
There is not enough reliable information to know if mangosteen products are safe for use as medicines.
Special Precautions & Warnings:
We currently have no information for MANGOSTEEN Interactions
The appropriate dose of mangosteen depends on several factors such as the user’s age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for mangosteen. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.
Chairungsrilerd N and et al. Pharmacological properties of á-mangostin, a novel histamine H1 receptor antagonist . Eur J Pharmacol. 1996;314:351-356. View abstract.
Chairungsrilerd, N., Furukawa, K., Tadano, T., Kisara, K., and Ohizumi, Y. Effect of gamma-mangostin through the inhibition of 5-hydroxy-tryptamine2A receptors in 5-fluoro-alpha-methyltryptamine-induced head-twitch responses of mice. Br J Pharmacol. 1998;123(5):855-862. View abstract.
Chanarat, P., Chanarat, N., Fujihara, M., and Nagumo, T. Immunopharmacological activity of polysaccharide from the pericarb of mangosteen garcinia: phagocytic intracellular killing activities. J Med Assoc.Thai. 1997;80 Suppl 1:S149-S154. View abstract.
Chen, S. X., Wan, M., and Loh, B. N. Active constituents against HIV-1 protease from Garcinia mangostana. Planta Med 1996;62(4):381-382. View abstract.
Chomnawang, M. T., Surassmo, S., Nukoolkarn, V. S., and Gritsanapan, W. Antimicrobial effects of Thai medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria. J Ethnopharmacol. 10-3-2005;101(1-3):330-333. View abstract.
Furukawa, K., Chairungsrilerd, N., Ohta, T., Nozoe, S., and Ohizumi, Y. [Novel types of receptor antagonists from the medicinal plant Garcinia mangostana]. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 1997;110 Suppl 1:153P-158P. View abstract.
Furukawa, K., Shibusawa, K., Chairungsrilerd, N., Ohta, T., Nozoe, S., and Ohizumi, Y. The mode of inhibitory action of alpha-mangostin, a novel inhibitor, on the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-pumping ATPase from rabbit skeletal muscle. Jpn.J Pharmacol. 1996;71(4):337-340. View abstract.
Gopalakrishnan, C., Shankaranarayanan, D., Kameswaran, L., and Nazimudeen, S. K. Effect of mangostin, a xanthone from Garcinia mangostana Linn. in immunopathological & inflammatory reactions. Indian J Exp.Biol 1980;18(8):843-846. View abstract.
Gopalakrishnan, G. and Balaganesan, B. Two novel xanthones from Garcinia mangostana. Fitoterapia 2000;71(5):607-609. View abstract.
Huang, Y. L., Chen, C. C., Chen, Y. J., Huang, R. L., and Shieh, B. J. Three xanthones and a benzophenone from Garcinia mangostana.
It can grow to a size of a grapefruit, has a brownish pulp and a strong sour taste, which is just common in most members of the tamarind family.
J Nat Prod 2001;64(7):903-906. View abstract.
Iinuma, M., Tosa, H., Tanaka, T., Asai, F., Kobayashi, Y., Shimano, R., and Miyauchi, K. Antibacterial activity of xanthones from guttiferaeous plants against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1996;48(8):861-865. View abstract.
Jinsart, W., Ternai, B., Buddhasukh, D., and Polya, G. M. Inhibition of wheat embryo calcium-dependent protein kinase and other kinases by mangostin and gamma-mangostin. Phytochemistry 1992;31(11):3711-3713. View abstract.
Jung, H. A., Su, B. N., Keller, W. J., Mehta, R. G., and Kinghorn, A. D. Antioxidant xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen). J Agric.Food Chem 3-22-2006;54(6):2077-2082. View abstract.
Mahabusarakam W. Chemical constituents of Garcinia mangostana. J Nat Prod 1987;50:474-478.
Matsumoto, K., Akao, Y., Yi, H., Ohguchi, K., Ito, T., Tanaka, T., Kobayashi, E., Iinuma, M., and Nozawa, Y. Preferential target is mitochondria in alpha-mangostin-induced apoptosis in human leukemia HL60 cells. Bioorg.Med Chem 11-15-2004;12(22):5799-5806. View abstract.
Moongkarndi, P., Kosem, N., Kaslungka, S., Luanratana, O., Pongpan, N., and Neungton, N. Antiproliferation, antioxidation and induction of apoptosis by Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) on SKBR3 human breast cancer cell line. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;90(1):161-166. View abstract.
Moongkarndi, P., Kosem, N., Luanratana, O., Jongsomboonkusol, S., and Pongpan, N. Antiproliferative activity of Thai medicinal plant extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line. Fitoterapia 2004;75(3-4):375-377. View abstract.
Nakatani, K., Atsumi, M., Arakawa, T., Oosawa, K., Shimura, S., Nakahata, N., and Ohizumi, Y. Inhibitions of histamine release and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by mangosteen, a Thai medicinal plant. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002;25(9):1137-1141. View abstract.
Nakatani, K., Nakahata, N., Arakawa, T., Yasuda, H., and Ohizumi, Y. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by gamma-mangostin, a xanthone derivative in mangosteen, in C6 rat glioma cells. Biochem.Pharmacol. 1-1-2002;63(1):73-79. View abstract.
Nakatani, K., Yamakuni, T., Kondo, N., Arakawa, T., Oosawa, K., Shimura, S., Inoue, H., and Ohizumi, Y. gamma-Mangostin inhibits inhibitor-kappaB kinase activity and decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression in C6 rat glioma cells. Mol.Pharmacol. 2004;66(3):667-674. View abstract.
Nguyen, L. H., Venkatraman, G., Sim, K. Y., and Harrison, L. J. Xanthones and benzophenones from Garcinia griffithii and Garcinia mangostana. Phytochemistry 2005;66(14):1718-1723. View abstract.
Sakagami, Y., Iinuma, M., Piyasena, K. G., and Dharmaratne, H. R. Antibacterial activity of alpha-mangostin against vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE) and synergism with antibiotics. Phytomedicine. 2005;12(3):203-208. View abstract.
Sato, A., Fujiwara, H., Oku, H., Ishiguro, K., and Ohizumi, Y. Alpha-mangostin induces Ca2+-ATPase-dependent apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway in PC12 cells. J Pharmacol.Sci 2004;95(1):33-40. View abstract.
Shankaranarayan, D., Gopalakrishnan, C., and Kameswaran, L. Pharmacological profile of mangostin and its derivatives. Arch Int Pharmacodyn.Ther 1979;239(2):257-269. View abstract.
Suksamrarn, S., Komutiban, O., Ratananukul, P., Chimnoi, N., Lartpornmatulee, N., and Suksamrarn, A. Cytotoxic prenylated xanthones from the young fruit of Garcinia mangostana. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2006;54(3):301-305. View abstract.
Suksamrarn, S., Suwannapoch, N., Ratananukul, P., Aroonlerk, N., and Suksamrarn, A. Xanthones from the green fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana. J Nat Prod 2002;65(5):761-763. View abstract.
Sundaram, B. M., Gopalakrishnan, C., Subramanian, S., Shankaranarayanan, D., and Kameswaran, L. Antimicrobial activities of Garcinia mangostana. Planta Med 1983;48(1):59-60. View abstract.
Tosa, H., Iinuma, M., and et al. Inhibitory activity of xanthone derivatives isolated from some guttiferaeous plants against DNA topoisomerases I and II.
Now, you don’t have to worry about excess fat production and uncontrollable cravings.
It’s very important that you equip yourself with the knowledge and qualifications of what a top quality and effective garcinia cambogia product is so you know you’re getting an authentic product that’s safe and most of all, effective.
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin Tokyo 1997;45(2):418-420.
Zheng, M. S. and Lu, Z. Y. Antiviral effect of mangiferin and isomangiferin on herpes simplex virus. Chin Med J (Engl.) 1990;103(2):160-165. View abstract.
Chairungsrilerd N, Furukawa K, Ohta T, et al. Histaminergic and serotonergic receptor blocking substances from the medicinal plant Garcinia mangostana. Planta Med 1996;62:471-2. View abstract.
Ho CK, Huang YL, Chen CC. Garcinone E, a xanthone derivative, has potent cytotoxic effect against hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Planta Med 2002;68:975-9. View abstract.
Matsumoto K, Akao Y, Kobayashi E, et al. Induction of aptosis by xanthones from mangosteen in human leukemia cell lines. J Nat Prod 2003;66:1124-7. View abstract.
Nilar, Harrison LJ. Xanthones from the heartwood of Garcinia mangostana. Phytochemistry 2002;60:541-8. View abstract.
Suksamrarn S, Suwannapoch N, Phakhodee W, et al. Antimycobacterial activity of prenylated xanthones from the fruits of Garcinia mangostana. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2003;51:857-9. View abstract.
Voravuthikunchai SP, Kitpipit L. Activity of medicinal plant extracts against hospital isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Microbiol Infect 2005;11:510-2. View abstract.
Wong LP, Klemmer PJ. Severe lactic acidosis associated with juice of the mangosteen fruit Garcinia mangostana. Am J Kidney Dis 2008;51:829-33. View abstract.
Garcinia Cambogia – Health Benefits and Side Effects
Botanical Name: Garcinia cambogia, Garcinia gummi-gutta.
Other Common Names: Brindle berry, brindall berry, garcinia, malabar tamarind, hydroxycitric acid (HCA), citrin, gambooge, gorikapuli, uppagi, garcinia kola, mangosteen oil tree.
The name malabar tamarind can be misleading since it is often confused with tamarind (Tamarindus indica), which belongs to the Fabaceae family (the pea family).
Habitat: India and South-east Asia.
Description: Garcinia cambogia is a flowering evergreen tree, with drooping branches. The fruit is yellow and oval and resembles small pumpkins.
It is part of the Clusiaceae family, the same family as mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana).
Plant Parts Used: The fruit peel (rind) is used both as a spice and medicine.
Garcinia cambogia (Garcinia gummi-gutta)
Therapeutic Uses, Benefits and Claims of Garcinia Cambogia
Garcinia Cambogia – Herb Illustrations Garcinia cambogia, with its distinctly sour sweet taste, has been used for centuries in South-east Asia to make meals more filling.
The active constituent in this herb is called hydroxycitric acid or HCA and is gaining a reputation for assisting weight loss through appetite suppression and by reducing the body’s ability to form adipose(fatty) tissue during times of overeating.
The mechanism for garcinia’s weight loss ability is still not completely understood but is believed to be through inhibiting the body’s ability to convert carbohydrates to fats. This leads to an increase in glycogen in the liver, which sends a message to the brain indicating satiety and, in turn, reduces appetite.
In recent years studies are focusing on the most effective form of HCA to take for maximum therapeutic benefit.
What is significant is that a recent Japanese study, using an animal model, indicated that during exercise the regular use of HCA promotes fat burning and spares carbohydrate use at rest and during exercise, so garcinia may contribute to endurance exercise.
This herb has also been historically used to treat gastric ulcers.
A 2002 study indicates this herb works primarily through the action of one of these plant’s components, garcinol. Garcinol is known to lower acidity in the stomach and protects the gastric mucosa.
The rind of garcinia cambogia is also astringent, which is why it was also historically used in the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery as well as having the added benefit in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers.
The ability of the substance HCA to reduce blood lipid levels and naturally lower blood cholesterol is another property of this amazing natural medicine.
More recently, it has been proposed that garcinia cambogia has a hepatoprotective ability against external toxins such as alcohol.
A recent study showed that garcinia prevented liver cells from becoming fibrotic and stopped cell damage caused by high blood lipid levels.
Common names: Mangosteen (the English derived from olden Malay, manggusta or
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In Portuguese it is called mangostao (Feijao) [Burkill]. Sinhalese: Mangus; Tamil:
Sulambali; Hindi: Mangustan [Jayaweera]. Manggis (Sul.), mangostan (Tag.) [Quisumbing].
German: Maogostane; Hind & Ben: Mangustan; Bom., Guj., and Mah.: Mangostin, Mengut,
Mangastin, Mangustan; Burm: Mengkop, Mengut. Mimbu, Young-zalai; Mal.: Mangusta;
Malay: Mangusta; Kon.: Tavir; French: Mangostan [Dey; Nadkarnis & Nadkarnis].
Mangostan (Tagalog, Samar-Leyte Bisaya, Bikol, Hiligaynon, Cebu Bisaya, Manobo);
Mangosta (Iloko); Kadiis; Kanabla (Cebu Bisaya); Manggis (Tausug, Sulu)
Mangosteen (Chabakano). The fruit is often called the ‘Queen of Fruits’
Description : The plant was an import from Indonesia [Abbiw]. It is a tree 7-8 m high with dense
heavy profusely branched crown, known only from cultivation in SE Asia and subsequently
taken by man to other parts of the tropics. A constantly humid climate is required.
The leaves are leathery. The timber is dark-brown, rather hard and heavy and the inner bark
yellowish. The petioles are short and thick. The flowers are 5 centimeters in diameter, 4-
parted, bisexual, and borne singly or in pairs at the ends of the branchlets. The seeds are
large, flattened- and embedded in snowy-white or pinkish delicious pulp, which is botanically
called the aril. Dried fruits are shipped from Singapore to Calcutta and to China for medicinal
The fruit is the mangosteen, rated one of the most delectable of the tropics and pulp gives the fruit its reputation as one of the finest and most delicious of fruits. Good fruits may attain 6-7 cm in diameter and contain 5-7 seed surrounded by a white, sweet and succulent flesh [Burkill; Quisumbing]. The fruit is a rounded berry 5 to 7 centimeters in diameter, smooth, and dark purple. The rind is firm, spongy, thick, and full of yellow, resinous juice.
Distribution : Central Provinces , Peradeniya. Indigenous to Malaya and cultivated in the west coast of India and Ceylon . It is a common fruit tree in most village gardens in Ceylon , both in the mid and wet low-country [Jayaweera]. Mangostan is usually found planted in parts of Mindanao and in the Sulu Archipelago, and occasionally in other regions, ranging at least as far as Sorsogon. It was purposely introduced into the Philippines from Malaya [Quisumbing]. It is a native of the Straights, Settlements and Singapore .
Escape to British Burma , Malayan Peninsular ( Malay Archipelago ) and the Madras Presidency [Nadkarni and Nadkarni].
Chemical composition: Tannin is obtained from the bark [Abbiw]. The fruit shell contains 7- 13% tannin and the seeds contain 3% oil [Burkill]. The rind of the fruit contains tannin, a resin and a bitter principle called mangostin (Fig.1). The edible aril contains saccharose, dextrose and kerrelose [Jayaweera]. The rind contains 5.5 per cent of tannin, and a resin as well as a yellow crystalline bitter principle, mangostin (C20H22O5) or mangosim [Nadkarni & Nadkarni] isolated from the rind. It was reported that the flesh of the fruit (aril) contains saccharose 10.8%, dextrose 1%, and kerrelose 1.2%. The seeds are reported to contain vitamin C [Quisumbing]. From a methanolic extract of mangosteen leaves a new flavour compound, 2-ethyl-3-methylmaleimide N-beta-D-glucopyranoside was found [Krajewski et al]. The rind is rich in pectin.
Food use: The round dark purple-brown fruit looks rather like a smooth small oddly coloured cricket ball. The juicy flesh of the Mangosteen is similar to that of a lychee [Bastyra and Canning]. Mangosteen is apple-shaped with dark leathery skin which ripens to a deep purple. Cooking kills the delicate flavour and texture. Low in vitamin C, eaten for flavour not vitamin content [Daily Mail]. The kernels can be ground to produce a vegetable butter [Burkill].
Antifungal use: The antifungal activity of several xanthones isolated from fruit hulls of G.
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mangostana (collected from Tamil Nadu , India ) and some derivatives of mangostin against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum, Alternaria tenuis [A. alternata] and Drechslera oryzae [Cochliobolus miyabeanus] was evaluated. The natural xanthones inhibited the growth of all the fungi. Substitution in the A and C rings modified the bioactivities of the compounds [Geetha et al; Gopalakrishnan et al]. Antibacterial: Extracts of Garcinia mangostana showed inhibitory effects against the growth of Staph. aureus NIHJ 209p and some of the components had activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). One active isolate, α-mangostin, a xanthone derivative, had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1.57-12.5 ug/ml. Other related xanthones were also examined to determine their anti-MRSA activity.
The strong in-vitro antibacterial activity of xanthone derivatives against both methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus suggested the compounds might find wide pharmaceutical use [Iinuma et al].
Anti-inflammatory: G. mangostana fruit hulls are used as an antiinflammatory agent [Chairungsrilerd et al], astringent and to treat diarrhoea. The fruit hull of mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana has been used as a Thai indigenous medicine for many years. The 40% ethanol extract of mangosteen has potent inhibitory activities of both histamine release and prostaglandin E2 synthesis [Nakatani et al].
Antioxidant: In the course of a search for natural antioxidants, the methanol extract of the fruit hulls of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) originating in Vietnam was found to exhibit a potent radical scavenging effect. By monitoring this radical scavenging effect, two xanthones, alpha- and gamma-mangostins, were isolated, together with (-)-epicatechin and procyanidins A-2 and B-2, as active principles. The antioxidant activity of the two xanthones was measured by the ferric thiocyanate method; gamma-mangostin was more active than butylhydroxyanisol and alpha-tocopherol [Yoshikawa]. A paper entitled “Antioxidant activities of some tropical fruits” [Guan, Tan Tze, Whiteman, Matthew] but source unknown also confirmed the benefits of Mangosteen as an antioxidant.
Cosmetic uses: The technical data and scientific studies confirm that this extract is an excellent choice for antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory effects on the skin. These are exactly the conditions encountered in acne-prone skin where soaps, creams and washes ideally suit the use of the extract. Made into an ointment, it is applied on eczema and other skin disorders [Morton]. The traditional oral use also suggests the use of this plant in herbal toothpastes for good oral
Medical uses: It is used to prepare astringent medicines for use in dysentery, enteritis, [Burkill]. The rind of the fruit, which contains resin, is used in diarrhoea and dysentery. The bark and young leaves are also used for the same purpose and for ailments of the genito-urinary tracts [Jayaweera]. In Cambodia , the bark and the rind of the fruit are used for diarrhoea and dysentery as astringents. The bark and young leaves are employed by the Macassars in diarrhoea., dysentery [Quisumbing].
The rind is also used as an astringent medicine for diarrhoea and dysentery. It has been found very useful in chronic diarrhoea in children. The value of the rind lies in the yellow resin which may act as a stimulant to the intestines. A decoction of the powdered rind is used as an external astringent application [Quisumbing; Nadkarni and Nadkarni; Morton] as are the bark and young leaves.
The pericarp is regarded as very efficacious in curing chronic intestinal catarrh [Quisumbing] and the fleshy pericarp is a valuable astringent [Drury] and has been successfully employed in the advanced stages of dysentery and in chronic diarrhoea as well as for a strong decoction as an external astringent application in dysentery [Drury].
A decoction of the roots is drunk in dysmenorrhoea [Quisumbing].
Most adverse reactions included headache, dizziness, dry mouth, and GI complaints such as nausea and diarrhea.
It is used for affections of the genito-urinary tracts [Quisumbing]. It also has anti-tubercular action with α- and β-mangostins and garcinone B which exhibited strong inhibitory effect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with the minimum inhibitory concentration value of 6.25 µg/ml [Suksamrarn]. Filipinos employ a decoction of the leaves and bark as a febrifuge and to treat thrush, diarrhoea, dysentery and urinary disorders. In Malaya , an infusion of the leaves, combined with unripe banana and a little benzoin is applied to the wound of circumcision. A root decoction is taken to regulate menstruation. A bark extract called “amibiasine”, has been marketed for the treatment of amoebic dysentery [Morton]. The rind of partially ripe fruits yields a polyhydroxy-xanthone derivative termed mangostin, also ß-mangostin. That of fully ripe fruits contains the xanthones, gartanin, 8-disoxygartanin, and normangostin. A derivative of mangostin, mangostine- 6-di-O-glucoside, is a central nervous system depressant and causes a rise in blood pressure [Morton].
Oral uses: In Ghana it is said to be used for chew-sticks [Burkill] and also as a wash for aphthae of the mouth [Jayaweera]. The leaves and the bark are used as an astringent for aphthae and also as a febrifuge [Quisumbing]. It has been the subject of part of a patent application. “A composition in the form of a biodegradable gel, chip or ointment is provided, for adjunct treatment of periodontitis, comprising: (i) an antimicrobial extract having antimicrobial or antibacterial activity against periodontal pathogens, preferably from one or more of the plants Andrographis paniculata, mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) and turmeric (Curcuma longa); and (ii) a gel base containing a mixture of glyceryl monooleate and triglyceride. The composition is biodegradable, and forms a liquid crystal structure on contacting gingival fluid, which liquid crystal structure releases active ingredients gradually, to provide a sustained release dosage form.” [ U.S. Patent]
Other uses: It can be used for tanning. In Malaya the shell is used to obtain a black dye [Burkill]. Pharmacology: It has been used for many years as a medicine for treatment of skin infection, wounds, and diarrhoea in Southeast Asia . The effect of γ-mangostin, a tetraoxygenated diprenylated xanthone contained in mangosteen was examined, on arachidonic acid (AA) cascade in C6 rat glioma cells. The study demonstrated that γ-mangostin, a xanthone derivative, directly inhibited COX activity. Doses Preparations: (all of the rind): Extract, dose 3 to 10 grains; Tincture (1 in 10), dose: 1/2 to 1 drachm; Syrup (1 in 10), dose: 1/2 to 1 drachm; Decoction (1 in 10), dose: 4 ounces; Powder, dose: 10 to 60 grains and juice [Nadkarni and Nadkarni]. Local Recipes Rind and pulp or entire dried fruit are employed as specific remedies in chronic diarrhoea and dysentery, usually in the form of a syrup, the drug being boiled in water, strained and the decoction evaporated to a suitable consistence and then sugar added. A decoction of the rind with a little cumin and coriander added is also useful in doses of 4 ounces twice a day with or without the addition of 5 to 10 minims of tincture of opium to each dose; sugar or syrup may also be added to it just to make it palatable. Mangosteen fruit may also be employed in powder given in doses of 10 to 15 grains in port wine, or made into a paste with a little sugar; in either form it may be unproved by the addition of aromatics, such as cardamom and cinnamon powder 5 to 10 grains to each dose. Fruit is regarded as a remedy in leucorrhoea, gonorrhoea and gleet and is stated to lessen both the irritation and the