Side effects of garcinia mangostana

Side effects of garcinia mangostana
Finally, some of benefits of this supplement are those that help you lose weight by promoting a sense of satiety and decreasing appetite of those who consume it.

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Other Names:

Brindal Berry, Brindle Berry, Cambogia binucao, Cambogia gemmi-guta, Garcinia affinis, Garcinia Cambogi, Garcinia cambogia, Garcinia gummi-guta, Garcinia sulcata, Gorikapuli, Kankusta, Kudam puli, Malabar Tamarind, Mangostana cambogia, Tamarinie.

See All Names Brindal Berry, Brindle Berry, Cambogia binucao, Cambogia gemmi-guta, Garcinia affinis, Garcinia Cambogi, Garcinia cambogia, Garcinia gummi-guta, Garcinia sulcata, Gorikapuli, Kankusta, Kudam puli, Malabar Tamarind, Mangostana cambogia, Tamarinier de Malabar, Vrikshamla.

GARCINIA Overview Information

Garcinia is a small to medium-sized tree that grows in India and Southeast Asia. The fruit rind contains the chemical hydroxycitric acid (HCA) and is used to make medicine. Don't confuse Garcinia with Garcinia hanburyi (gamboge resin).

How does it work?

Garcinia contains the chemical hydroxycitric acid (HCA). Developing research suggests that HCA might prevent fat storage, control appetite, and increase exercise endurance; however, whether these effects occur in humans is unclear.

GARCINIA Uses & Effectiveness

Insufficient Evidence for:

  • Exercise performance. Taking a chemical compound found in Garcinia called hydroxycitric acid (HCA) might increase how long untrained women are able to exercise. However, it does not seem benefit men in the same way.
  • Weight loss. Research on the effect of Garcinia on weight loss is inconsistent. Some research shows that taking Garcinia extract that contains 50% hydroxycitric acid (HCA) for 8-12 weeks doesn't decrease fat breakdown or energy expenditure in overweight people. However, other research suggests that it might improve weight loss when taken for 12 weeks. Taking a specific Garcinia product containing 60% HCA (Super CitriMax InterHealth Nutriceuticals) by mouth in three doses daily 30 to 60 minutes before meals for 8 weeks, together with a healthy diet, seems to improve weight loss more than just diet alone. But other research shows that adding this specific Garcinia product to cereal bars or tomato juice and consuming them before lunch and dinner for 2 weeks does not improve weight loss. Reasons for the inconsistent results might be the dose, duration of treatment, or formulation of Garcinia extract that was used.
  • Joint pain.
  • Treating worms and parasites.
  • Emptying the bowel.
  • Severe diarrhea (dysentery).
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of garcinia for these uses.
GARCINIA Side Effects & Safety

Garcinia is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth for 12 weeks or less. Long-term safety is unknown. Garcinia can cause nausea, digestive tract discomfort, and headache.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

GARCINIA Interactions

We currently have no information for GARCINIA Interactions

GARCINIA Dosing

The appropriate dose of garcinia depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time, there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for garcinia. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

Bunchorntavakul, C. and Reddy, K. R. Review article: herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity. Aliment.Pharmacol.Ther 2013;37(1):3-17. View abstract.

Jena, B. S., Jayaprakasha, G. K., Singh, R. P., and Sakariah, K.

Your weight loss attempts have taken you through every possible emotion, sometimes to extremes.

K. Chemistry and biochemistry of (-)-hydroxycitric acid from Garcinia. J Agric.Food Chem. 1-2-2002;50(1):10-22. View abstract.

Kriketos, A. D., Thompson, H. R., Greene, H., and Hill, J. O. (-)-Hydroxycitric acid does not affect energy expenditure and substrate oxidation in adult males in a post-absorptive state. Int J Obes.Relat Metab Disord. 1999;23(8):867-873. View abstract.

Actis GC, Bugianesi E, Ottobrelli A, Rizzetto M. Fatal liver failure following food supplements during chronic treatment with montelukast. Dig Liver Dis. 2007 Oct;39(10):953-5. View abstract.

Allen SF, Godley RW, Evron JM, et al. Acute necrotizing eosinophilic myocarditis in a patient taking Garcinia cambogia extract successfully treated with high-dose corticosteroids. Can J Cardiol 2014;30(12):1732 e13-1732 e15. View abstract.

Badmaev V, Majeed M, Conte AA. Garcinia cambogia for weight loss. JAMA 1999;282:233-4; discussion 235. View abstract.

Chuah LO, Yeap SK, Ho WY, et al. In vitro and In vivo toxicity of Garcinia or hydroxycitric acid: a review. Evid Based Compl Alt Med 2012;2012:197920. View abstract.

Corey R, Werner KT, Singer A, Moss A, Smith M, Noelting J, Rakela J. Acute liver failure associated with Garcinia cambogia use. Ann Hepatol. 2016 Jan-Feb;15(1):123-6. View abstract.

Dara L, Hewett J, Lim JK. Hydroxycut hepatotoxicity: a case series and review of liver toxicity from herbal weight loss supplements. World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Dec 7;14(45):6999-7004. View abstract.

Firenzuoli F, Gori L. Garcinia cambogia for weight loss. JAMA 1999;282:234; discussion 235. View abstract.

García-Cortés M, Robles-Díaz M, Ortega-Alonso A, Medina-Caliz I, Andrade RJ. Hepatotoxicity by Dietary Supplements: A Tabular Listing and Clinical Characteristics. Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Apr 9;17(4):537. View abstract.

Hasegawa N. Garcinia extract inhibits lipid droplet accumulation without affecting adipose conversion in 3T3-L1 cells. Phytother Res 2001;15:172-3. View abstract.

Heymsfield SB, Allison DB, Vasselli JR, et al. Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid) as a potential antiobesity agent: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1998;280:1596-600. View abstract.

Ishihara K, Oyaizu S, Onuki K, Lim K, et al. Chronic (-)-hydroxycitrate administration spares carbohydrate utilization and promotes lipid oxidation during exercise in mice. J Nutr 2000;130:2990-5. View abstract.

Kovacs EM, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Saris WH. The effects of 2-week ingestion of (--)-hydroxycitrate and (--)-hydroxycitrate combined with medium-chain triglycerides on satiety, fat oxidation, energy expenditure and body weight. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001;25:1087-94. View abstract.

Lim K, Ryu S, Nho HS, et al. (-)-Hydroxycitric acid ingestion increases fat utilization during exercise in untrained women. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2003;49:163-167. View abstract.

Lopez AM, Kornegay J, Hendrickson RG. Serotonin Toxicity Associated with Garcinia cambogia Over-the-counter Supplement. J Med Toxicol. 2014 Apr 4. [Epub ahead of print]. View abstract.

Mansi IA, Huang J. Rhabdomyolysis in response to weight-loss herbal medicine. Am J Med Sci 2004;327:356-357. View abstract.

Marquez F, Babio N, Bullo M, Salas-Salvado J. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of hydroxycitric acid or Garcinia cambogia extracts in humans. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2012;52:585-94. View abstract.

Mattes RD, Bormann L. Effects of (-)-hydroxycitric acid on appetitive variables.

How to Take Full Advantage of Garcinia Cambogia Extract While diet and exercise are not required when you start using garcinia cambogia extract, they are highly recommended.

They also raised concerns that the conjugated linoleic acid increases the amount of free fatty acids in the blood and can be problematic for individuals who burn fatty acids increase in fuel provided for physical activity, resulting in hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and lipodystrophy (one fat metabolism disease causes abnormal fat distribution standard) 0.27 2012 review and meta-analysis found that in well-designed studies in humans, lasting at least six months, there was no clinically relevant effect on weight loss of only 1.3 kg (2.9 pounds), plus weight loss in the treatment group and body composition .28 Green coffee bean extract derived from raw materials, raw green coffee beans and contains chlorogenic acid antioxidant which appears to disrupt the enzyme glucose-6 phosphatase and reduce the amount absorbed by glucose in the intestine.

Physiol Behav 2000;71:87-94. View abstract.

Melendez-Rosado J, Snipelisky D, Matcha G, Stancampiano F. Acute hepatitis induced by pure Garcinia cambogia. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2015 May-Jun;49(5):449-50. View abstract.

Preuss HG, Bagchi D, Bagchi M, et al. Effects of a natural extract of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) and a combination of HCA-SX plus niacin-bound chromium and Gymnema sylvestre extract on weight loss. Diabetes Obes Metab 2004;6:171-180. View abstract.

Rashid NN, Grant J. Hydroxycut hepatotoxicity. Med J Aust. 2010 Feb 1;192(3):173-4. View abstract.

Schaller JL. Garcinia cambogia for weight loss. JAMA 1999;282:234; discussion 235. View abstract.

Sharma T, Wong L, Tsai N, Wong RD. Hydroxycut(®) (herbal weight loss supplement) induced hepatotoxicity: a case report and review of literature. Hawaii Med J. 2010 Aug;69(8):188-90. View abstract.

Soni MG, Burdock GA, Preuss HG, et al. Safety assessment of (-)-hydroxycitric acid and Super CitriMax, a novel calcium/potassium salt. Food Chem Toxicol 2004;42:1513-29. View abstract.

Stevens T, Qadri A, Zein NN. Two patients with acute liver injury associated with use of the herbal weight-loss supplement hydroxycut. Ann Intern Med 2005;142:477-8. View abstract.

Vasques CA, Schneider R, Klein-Júnior LC, et al. Hypolipemic effect of Garcinia Cambogia in obese women. Phytother Res 2014;28(6):887-91. View abstract.

Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Kovacs EMR. The effect of (-)-hydroxycitrate on energy intake and satiety in overweight humans. Int J Obesity 2002;26:870-2. View abstract.

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Other Names:

Amibiasine, Fruit des Rois, Garcinia mangostana, Jus de Xango, Mang Cut, Manggis, Manggistan, Mangosta, Mangostan, Mangostán, Mangostana, Mangostanier, Mangostao, Mangostier, Mangoustanier, Mangouste, Mangoustier, Manguita, Meseter, Queen of Fru.

See All Names Amibiasine, Fruit des Rois, Garcinia mangostana, Jus de Xango, Mang Cut, Manggis, Manggistan, Mangosta, Mangostan, Mangostán, Mangostana, Mangostanier, Mangostao, Mangostier, Mangoustanier, Mangouste, Mangoustier, Manguita, Meseter, Queen of Fruits, Sementah, Semetah, Xango, Xango Juice.

MANGOSTEEN Overview Information

Mangosteen is a tropical fruit. The fruit, fruit juice, rind, twig, and bark are used as medicine.

How does it work?

The fruit rind contains tannins. These might help for diarrhea. But there is no scientific information about whether mangosteen works for any medical condition.

MANGOSTEEN Uses & Effectiveness

Insufficient Evidence for:

  • Dysentery.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs).
  • Gonorrhea.
  • Thrush.
  • Tuberculosis.
  • Eczema.
  • Menstrual disorders.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of mangosteen for these uses.
MANGOSTEEN Side Effects & Safety

There is not enough reliable information to know if mangosteen products are safe for use as medicines.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

MANGOSTEEN Interactions

We currently have no information for MANGOSTEEN Interactions

MANGOSTEEN Dosing

The appropriate dose of mangosteen depends on several factors such as the user’s age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for mangosteen.

And this wonder pill does not show any signs of slowing down since it remains to be the bestseller of all.

Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

Chairungsrilerd N and et al. Pharmacological properties of á-mangostin, a novel histamine H1 receptor antagonist . Eur J Pharmacol. 1996;314:351-356. View abstract.

Chairungsrilerd, N., Furukawa, K., Tadano, T., Kisara, K., and Ohizumi, Y. Effect of gamma-mangostin through the inhibition of 5-hydroxy-tryptamine2A receptors in 5-fluoro-alpha-methyltryptamine-induced head-twitch responses of mice. Br J Pharmacol. 1998;123(5):855-862. View abstract.

Chanarat, P., Chanarat, N., Fujihara, M., and Nagumo, T. Immunopharmacological activity of polysaccharide from the pericarb of mangosteen garcinia: phagocytic intracellular killing activities. J Med Assoc.Thai. 1997;80 Suppl 1:S149-S154. View abstract.

Chen, S. X., Wan, M., and Loh, B. N. Active constituents against HIV-1 protease from Garcinia mangostana. Planta Med 1996;62(4):381-382. View abstract.

Chomnawang, M. T., Surassmo, S., Nukoolkarn, V. S., and Gritsanapan, W. Antimicrobial effects of Thai medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria. J Ethnopharmacol. 10-3-2005;101(1-3):330-333. View abstract.

Furukawa, K., Chairungsrilerd, N., Ohta, T., Nozoe, S., and Ohizumi, Y. [Novel types of receptor antagonists from the medicinal plant Garcinia mangostana]. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 1997;110 Suppl 1:153P-158P. View abstract.

Furukawa, K., Shibusawa, K., Chairungsrilerd, N., Ohta, T., Nozoe, S., and Ohizumi, Y. The mode of inhibitory action of alpha-mangostin, a novel inhibitor, on the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-pumping ATPase from rabbit skeletal muscle. Jpn.J Pharmacol. 1996;71(4):337-340. View abstract.

Gopalakrishnan, C., Shankaranarayanan, D., Kameswaran, L., and Nazimudeen, S. K. Effect of mangostin, a xanthone from Garcinia mangostana Linn. in immunopathological & inflammatory reactions. Indian J Exp.Biol 1980;18(8):843-846. View abstract.

Gopalakrishnan, G. and Balaganesan, B. Two novel xanthones from Garcinia mangostana. Fitoterapia 2000;71(5):607-609. View abstract.

Huang, Y. L., Chen, C. C., Chen, Y. J., Huang, R. L., and Shieh, B. J. Three xanthones and a benzophenone from Garcinia mangostana. J Nat Prod 2001;64(7):903-906. View abstract.

Iinuma, M., Tosa, H., Tanaka, T., Asai, F., Kobayashi, Y., Shimano, R., and Miyauchi, K. Antibacterial activity of xanthones from guttiferaeous plants against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1996;48(8):861-865. View abstract.

Jinsart, W., Ternai, B., Buddhasukh, D., and Polya, G. M. Inhibition of wheat embryo calcium-dependent protein kinase and other kinases by mangostin and gamma-mangostin. Phytochemistry 1992;31(11):3711-3713. View abstract.

Jung, H. A., Su, B. N., Keller, W. J., Mehta, R. G., and Kinghorn, A. D. Antioxidant xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen). J Agric.Food Chem 3-22-2006;54(6):2077-2082. View abstract.

Mahabusarakam W. Chemical constituents of Garcinia mangostana. J Nat Prod 1987;50:474-478.

Matsumoto, K., Akao, Y., Yi, H., Ohguchi, K., Ito, T., Tanaka, T., Kobayashi, E., Iinuma, M., and Nozawa, Y. Preferential target is mitochondria in alpha-mangostin-induced apoptosis in human leukemia HL60 cells. Bioorg.Med Chem 11-15-2004;12(22):5799-5806. View abstract.

Moongkarndi, P., Kosem, N., Kaslungka, S., Luanratana, O., Pongpan, N., and Neungton, N.

The extract taken from the skin is HCA (Hydroxycitric Acid), this has a positive impact heading that our body (in specific the liver) deals with carbohydrates and sgarcina fruitugars in our diet.

Antiproliferation, antioxidation and induction of apoptosis by Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) on SKBR3 human breast cancer cell line. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;90(1):161-166. View abstract.

Moongkarndi, P., Kosem, N., Luanratana, O., Jongsomboonkusol, S., and Pongpan, N. Antiproliferative activity of Thai medicinal plant extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line. Fitoterapia 2004;75(3-4):375-377. View abstract.

Nakatani, K., Atsumi, M., Arakawa, T., Oosawa, K., Shimura, S., Nakahata, N., and Ohizumi, Y. Inhibitions of histamine release and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by mangosteen, a Thai medicinal plant. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002;25(9):1137-1141. View abstract.

Nakatani, K., Nakahata, N., Arakawa, T., Yasuda, H., and Ohizumi, Y. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by gamma-mangostin, a xanthone derivative in mangosteen, in C6 rat glioma cells. Biochem.Pharmacol. 1-1-2002;63(1):73-79. View abstract.

Nakatani, K., Yamakuni, T., Kondo, N., Arakawa, T., Oosawa, K., Shimura, S., Inoue, H., and Ohizumi, Y. gamma-Mangostin inhibits inhibitor-kappaB kinase activity and decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression in C6 rat glioma cells. Mol.Pharmacol. 2004;66(3):667-674. View abstract.

Nguyen, L. H., Venkatraman, G., Sim, K. Y., and Harrison, L. J. Xanthones and benzophenones from Garcinia griffithii and Garcinia mangostana. Phytochemistry 2005;66(14):1718-1723. View abstract.

Sakagami, Y., Iinuma, M., Piyasena, K. G., and Dharmaratne, H. R. Antibacterial activity of alpha-mangostin against vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE) and synergism with antibiotics. Phytomedicine. 2005;12(3):203-208. View abstract.

Sato, A., Fujiwara, H., Oku, H., Ishiguro, K., and Ohizumi, Y. Alpha-mangostin induces Ca2+-ATPase-dependent apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway in PC12 cells. J Pharmacol.Sci 2004;95(1):33-40. View abstract.

Shankaranarayan, D., Gopalakrishnan, C., and Kameswaran, L. Pharmacological profile of mangostin and its derivatives. Arch Int Pharmacodyn.Ther 1979;239(2):257-269. View abstract.

Suksamrarn, S., Komutiban, O., Ratananukul, P., Chimnoi, N., Lartpornmatulee, N., and Suksamrarn, A. Cytotoxic prenylated xanthones from the young fruit of Garcinia mangostana. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2006;54(3):301-305. View abstract.

Suksamrarn, S., Suwannapoch, N., Ratananukul, P., Aroonlerk, N., and Suksamrarn, A. Xanthones from the green fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana. J Nat Prod 2002;65(5):761-763. View abstract.

Sundaram, B. M., Gopalakrishnan, C., Subramanian, S., Shankaranarayanan, D., and Kameswaran, L. Antimicrobial activities of Garcinia mangostana. Planta Med 1983;48(1):59-60. View abstract.

Tosa, H., Iinuma, M., and et al. Inhibitory activity of xanthone derivatives isolated from some guttiferaeous plants against DNA topoisomerases I and II. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin Tokyo 1997;45(2):418-420.

Zheng, M. S. and Lu, Z. Y. Antiviral effect of mangiferin and isomangiferin on herpes simplex virus. Chin Med J (Engl.) 1990;103(2):160-165. View abstract.

Chairungsrilerd N, Furukawa K, Ohta T, et al. Histaminergic and serotonergic receptor blocking substances from the medicinal plant Garcinia mangostana. Planta Med 1996;62:471-2. View abstract.

Ho CK, Huang YL, Chen CC. Garcinone E, a xanthone derivative, has potent cytotoxic effect against hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Planta Med 2002;68:975-9. View abstract.

Matsumoto K, Akao Y, Kobayashi E, et al.

Despite this, many experts argue that it brings more benefits to health than no harm, which creates some controversy around it.

Induction of aptosis by xanthones from mangosteen in human leukemia cell lines. J Nat Prod 2003;66:1124-7. View abstract.

Nilar, Harrison LJ. Xanthones from the heartwood of Garcinia mangostana. Phytochemistry 2002;60:541-8. View abstract.

Suksamrarn S, Suwannapoch N, Phakhodee W, et al. Antimycobacterial activity of prenylated xanthones from the fruits of Garcinia mangostana. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2003;51:857-9. View abstract.

Voravuthikunchai SP, Kitpipit L. Activity of medicinal plant extracts against hospital isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Microbiol Infect 2005;11:510-2. View abstract.

Wong LP, Klemmer PJ. Severe lactic acidosis associated with juice of the mangosteen fruit Garcinia mangostana. Am J Kidney Dis 2008;51:829-33. View abstract.

Garcinia Cambogia – Health Benefits and Side Effects

Botanical Name: Garcinia cambogia, Garcinia gummi-gutta.

Other Common Names: Brindle berry, brindall berry, garcinia, malabar tamarind, hydroxycitric acid (HCA), citrin, gambooge, gorikapuli, uppagi, garcinia kola, mangosteen oil tree.

The name malabar tamarind can be misleading since it is often confused with tamarind (Tamarindus indica), which belongs to the Fabaceae family (the pea family).

Habitat: India and South-east Asia.

Description: Garcinia cambogia is a flowering evergreen tree, with drooping branches. The fruit is yellow and oval and resembles small pumpkins.

It is part of the Clusiaceae family, the same family as mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana).

Plant Parts Used: The fruit peel (rind) is used both as a spice and medicine.

Garcinia cambogia (Garcinia gummi-gutta)

Therapeutic Uses, Benefits and Claims of Garcinia Cambogia

Garcinia Cambogia – Herb Illustrations Garcinia cambogia, with its distinctly sour sweet taste, has been used for centuries in South-east Asia to make meals more filling.

The active constituent in this herb is called hydroxycitric acid or HCA and is gaining a reputation for assisting weight loss through appetite suppression and by reducing the body’s ability to form adipose(fatty) tissue during times of overeating.

The mechanism for garcinia’s weight loss ability is still not completely understood but is believed to be through inhibiting the body’s ability to convert carbohydrates to fats. This leads to an increase in glycogen in the liver, which sends a message to the brain indicating satiety and, in turn, reduces appetite.

In recent years studies are focusing on the most effective form of HCA to take for maximum therapeutic benefit.

What is significant is that a recent Japanese study, using an animal model, indicated that during exercise the regular use of HCA promotes fat burning and spares carbohydrate use at rest and during exercise, so garcinia may contribute to endurance exercise.

This herb has also been historically used to treat gastric ulcers.

A 2002 study indicates this herb works primarily through the action of one of these plant’s components, garcinol. Garcinol is known to lower acidity in the stomach and protects the gastric mucosa.

The rind of garcinia cambogia is also astringent, which is why it was also historically used in the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery as well as having the added benefit in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers.

The ability of the substance HCA to reduce blood lipid levels and naturally lower blood cholesterol is another property of this amazing natural medicine.

More recently, it has been proposed that garcinia cambogia has a hepatoprotective ability against external toxins such as alcohol.

A recent study showed that garcinia prevented liver cells from becoming fibrotic and stopped cell damage caused by high blood lipid levels.