Weight loss saffron extract

Weight loss saffron extract
Having a bunch of obligations, a full life and a great figure often seems like an impossible mission.

Natural Appetite Suppressants that Work Without the Risks of Weight Loss Pills

No doubt about it, overeating — and its connection to more and more people becoming overweight or obese — is one of the most complex and challenging issues in health care today. There are many reasons why you might feel like you’re always hungry, including nutrient deficiencies, a lack of fiber or healthy fats in your diet, fatigue, or high amounts of emotional stress. However, it doesn’t have to be this way. Natural appetite suppressants can help you achieve satiety and avoid overeating, and they can help you do that without the dangers of diet pills.

While manufacturers of weight loss pills continue to promote the convenience and rapid results associated with their products, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and other health authorities warn against their use. Some of the main reasons that appetite-suppressing weight loss pills are considered to be at least somewhat dangerous include medication interactions, tainted or unlisted ingredients, high amounts of caffeine, and fillers or synthetic additives that cause negative reactions, just to name few.

The good news is this: There appear to be safer and more natural options for suppressing your appetite (and potentially losing some weight as a result) without so much risk involved. In fact, throughout history cultures all over the world have consumed natural foods, teas and spices that are now proving to be beneficial for metabolic functions and energy expenditure. Consuming natural appetite suppressants, such as filling, fat-burning foods, nutrients like conjugated linoleic acid and chromium, probiotics, and anti-aging beverages like green tea, can help you keep mindless cravings, a habit of snacking or a sweet tooth under better control.

What Is an Appetite Suppressant?

Appetite suppressants are either pills, drinks, supplements or whole foods that help keep you from overeating. Natural appetite suppressants — which have some similarities to commercial weight loss pills but some important differences — may help tackle some of these issues related to obesity or emotional eating in part by balancing levels of “hunger hormones,” such as ghrelin and leptin. Ghrelin and leptin rise and fall throughout the day depending on things like how much you’ve recently eaten, your mood, stress level, sleep, genetics, current weight and level of inflammation. In other words, there’s a lot at play when it comes to suppressing or stimulating your daily appetite.

In addition to decreasing your appetite through hormone regulation, nutrients or essential oils used for safely promoting weight loss can help tip the scale in your favor in several other ways, such as burning more stored body fat for energy (these are known as thermogenics), improving balance of blood sugar levels, curbing cravings for junk foods or sweets, improving thyroid health, increasing release of “happy hormones” or endorphins like serotonin, and possibly giving you a bit more energy throughout the day to be used for extra physical activity.

There are all sorts of products available today that claim to have these appetite-dulling effects, but not every kind has been shown to work or even to be very safe. Examples of weight loss supplements that pose the most risks include guarana, garcinia cambogia, bitter orange or ephedrine. According to the FDA, “Supplements aren’t considered drugs, so they aren’t put through the same strict safety and effectiveness requirements that drugs are.” (1) That’s why I recommend approaching weight loss holistically — especially by e ating filling, fat-burning, natural foods and other natural appetite suppressants that won’t potentially lead to complications like taking pills or consuming high amounts of caffeine can.

Top 5 Natural Appetite Suppressants

Green tea has been consumed for thousands of years and is still one of the healthiest beverages available to us today. It’s been the focus of hundreds of studies related to everything from preventing cognitive disorders like dementia to managing metabolic dysfunction. Recently, certain antioxidants and substances in green tea extract have been tied to beneficial effects on metabolic diseases and improvements in regulating appetite hormones.

A Cochrane meta-anylsis including 14 studied involving use of green tea found that its consumption was associated with mild but significant weight loss results compared to controls or placebo. (2) One study that tested the effects of green tea extract on a group of adults compared to a control group not taking green tea found that after 12 weeks, those taking 857 milligrams of green tea had significantly lower levels of ghrelin (known as the hunger hormone).

Participants in the green tea extract group also had improvements in cholesterol levels and elevated levels of adiponectin compared to the placebo group. Low levels of adiponectin have been tied to problems like insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and increased inflammation. EGCG, the most abundant green tea catechin and a powerful bioactive constituent, has also been shown to act like a cancer-fighting compound and promote thermogenic activities in studies, therefore decreasing fat cell proliferation and helping burn body fat for energy. (3)

Although not every study has shown such strong and positive weight loss results associated with green tea extract, it seems safe for most adults to take up to 800–900 milligrams daily, usually spread out over three increments. (4) Although they’re generally rare, when taking green tea extract be on the lookout for r eported adverse effects that might include mild headaches, signs of hypertension, constipation or possibly increased symptoms of urinary tract infection.

Some research suggests that taking certain saffron extracts can positive effects on mood regulation by increasing endorphin and serotonin levels. Saffron’s effects when it comes to suppressing appetite, including leading to reduced snacking and an elevated mood, seem to be the result of increased serotonin action in the body. (5) This has been shown to help improve symptoms of depression, emotional eating and PMS after about six to eight weeks of treatment. In fact, certain studies have found that saffron extract can work almost as well as taking a low-dose prescription antidepressant drug (such as fluoxetine or imipramine).

Additionally, while research shows mixed results, there’s some evidence that taking a chemical from saffron called crocetin might decrease fatigue during exercise and help with increasing energy expenditure. (6) To get the antidepressant benefits of saffron, start with the the standard daily dose of 30 milligrams, used for up to eight weeks. If you have any existing condition that might interfere with saffron’s influence on serotonin metabolism (like depression, for example), it’s a good idea to get your doctor’s opinion first.

3. Grapefruit Essential Oil

Grapefruit’s benefits for weight loss have been the focus of dozen of studies and seem to be due to beneficial acids, antioxidants, volatile oils and enzymes that help reduce your appetite, lower cravings, help stimulate the lymphatic system and give you a mild dose of uplifting energy.

Research regarding grapefruit’s effects on olfactory stimulation (how smelling the aroma affects the central nervous system) shows that inhaling the fruit’s smell can positively alter autonomic nerve signaling, lipolysis (fat metabolism) and appetite regulation. Here are several findings from a number of studies about how grapefruit essential oil impacts appetite and body weight: (7, 8)

  • The scent of grapefruit oil excites sympathetic nerves that supply the brown adipose tissue and adrenal glands, which may help stimulate weight loss.
  • Smelling grapefruit also helps stimulate ghrelin-induced feeding, making you feel fuller and less likely to give in to cravings.
  • Enzymes found in the rind (skin) of the grapefruit have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. They can help with the digestion of fats or sugar and the maintenance of balanced blood glucose levels, which might keep you from feeling cranky and in need of a quick caffeine or sugar fix.
  • Grapefruit oil and extract have been shown to be beneficial for those with insulin resistance or diabetes, causing a significant reduction in two-hour post-glucose insulin levels compared with placebo.
  • Some also find that the clean scent of citrus fruits helps reduce cravings for sweets and improves mood enough to reduce emotional eating. Body fat also is broken down by the enzymes found in grapefruit.

Certain studies have shown that just three 15-minute exposures to grapefruit essential oil each week helped participants reduce their appetites and practice habits (like slow, mindful eating) that better control their weight. How can you use grapefruit essential oil at home or when you’re on the go? Trying adding several drops of pure grapefruit essential oil (citrus paradise) either to a diffuser in your office/home, to your shower or bath soap, or with a carrier oil to be massaged right onto your skin (just do a skin patch test to be sure you don’t have an allergic reaction first).

Dietary fibers, whether from food sources or in concentrated supplement form, have been used for hundreds of years to promote fullness, improve gut health and digestive functions, and help maintain strong immunity and heart health. Despite the fact that fiber intake is inversely associated with hunger, body weight and body fat, studies show that the average fiber intake of adults in the United States is still less than half of recommended levels. (9)

What is it about fiber that dulls your appetite? Because fiber is not able to be digested once consumed, plus it absorbs so much of its own weight in water, high-fiber foods help slow your body’s digestion of glucose (sugar), keep you feeling fuller for longer and beat cravings. Many foods high in fiber are also very nutritionally dense, meaning you get more bang for your nutritional buck and help prevent dehydration or deficiencies.

Eating a high-fiber diet — similar to the Mediterranean diet or the way that those known for longevity living in the Blue Zones eat — has been linked to a longer life span, better regulation of healthy body weight, improved gut/digestive health, hormonal health and much more. According to research in the Obesity Reports, “Evidence points to a significant association between a lack of fiber intake and: ischemic heart disease, stroke, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, overweight and obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia , as well as gastrointestinal disorders.” (10)

To fill up on the right foods faster and for longer, consume more high-fiber foods, including chia seeds, flaxseeds, starchy or non-starchy fresh veggies, beans or legumes, and fruit (especially berries).

Naturally spicy (plus anti-inflammatory) ingredients like cayenne, black pepper, curry, turmeric, ginger, dandelion or cinnamon might help increase your body’s ability to burn fat, suppress hunger levels, normalize glucose levels, reduce free radical damage associated with aging and reduce your appetite for sweets.

Studies have found that results associated with eating spices like cayenne with high-carb meals indicate that red pepper increases diet-induced thermogenesis (heating the body and burning of fat) and lipid oxidation. (11) Other research regarding the effects of capsaicin, the phytochemical responsible for the spiciness of peppers, has shown that this compound can modulate metabolic activities through affecting transient receptors in the digestive system, such as one called TRPV1.

Because they’re loaded with benefits, virtually free from calories and easy to use on all sorts of recipes, there’s basically no reason for anything but love for spices. There’s evidence that including more spices and herbs in your diet (especially turmeric, black pepper and cayenne pepper) can help you reduce intake of things like flavor enhancers, salt and sugar while helping you reduce weight gain without having negative effects. Try adding some to homemade tea or detox drinks, marinades, on top of fish or other proteins, in a stir-fry, on veggies, or in soups.

Other Tips for Keeping Your Appetite Under Control:

  • Consume omega-3 fatty acids and probiotics. Both are tied to reduced inflammation, better mood control, anti-aging effects and improved gut/digestive health.
  • Eat enough protein and healthy fats, which are just as crucial for controlling hunger pangs as fiber is.
  • Drink more water.
  • Curb emotional eating by managing stress. Learning to eat mindfully can help with feeling more satisfied from your meals.
  • Get enough sleep.
  • Be careful not to overtrain, which can keep you feeling very hungry and fatigued no matter what you eat.

The Dangers of Prescription Diet Pills

Commercially sold diet pills usually contain a mix of stimulants, including caffeine, herbs, and sometimes digestive enzymes or acids. Generally, they come with adverse side effects, making them unhealthy ways to lose weight.

Caffeine is one of the most common weight loss ingredients because it often has the appealing effects of dulling someone’s appetite, improving motivation and increasing energy for activity. However, as you may have experienced yourself in the past, consuming too much caffeine within a short time period can cause strong side effects like jitteriness, headaches, insomnia, anxiety, heart palpitations, diarrhea and more.

While the majority of adults worldwide consume at least some caffeine daily, mostly in the form of coffee or tea, abnormally high amounts of c affeine are usually limited to “fat-burning” supplements.

They also have antibacterial effects preventing infections from spreading and getting worse.

When weight loss pill manufacturers include caffeine in amounts they’re rarely used otherwise, it’s likely to cause both short-term issues like dependence and jitteriness or, even worse, dangerous interactions with existing medical conditions or medications.

Due to interactions with medications or changes in blood pressure, other side effects of popular weight loss pills — like guarana, garcinia cambogia or ephedrine, for example — can include anxiety, trouble sleeping, indigestion, diarrhea, rapid heartbeat, headaches, dependency and blood pressure changes that can sometimes be dangerous.

Some commercially available thermogenic supplements (especially those containing ephedrine, also called ephedra) have even been found to induce acute liver failure and contribute to serious reactions like excessive bleeding, increased pressure in the brain, fatigue, malaise and jaundice. (12) This is one reason why ephedrine is now banned as a dietary supplement ingredient in the U.S. — due to an increase in reported reactions hypertension, palpitation, stroke, seizures, heart attack and even in rare cases death.

Precautions When Using Natural Appetite Suppressants

Because there’s always the risk for developing many different reactions depending on your current health and age, pay attention to how you feel even when using natural appetite suppressants. Follow dosage directions carefully, since high doses can cause dangerous reactions like poisoning, yellow appearance of the skin or mucous membranes, vomiting, dizziness, diarrhea, and heart problems.

Generally speaking, not enough is known about the safety of using even natural appetite suppressants during pregnancy or breastfeeding, so to stay on the safe side it’s wise to avoid use of supplements mentioned above during these times. Children and the elderly should also generally avoid consuming too much caffeine or supplements without a doctor’s opinion first.

If you have any of the below health problems, talk to a professional before attempting to suppress your appetite for weight loss (especially if you take medications daily):

  • Heart conditions, like high or low blood pressure or palpitations.
  • A mental health condition like anxiety, insomnia depression or bipolar disorder, since certain supplements like saffron or green tea extract may affect your mood and energy levels.
  • Dizziness or vertigo, as even low levels of caffeine can make these worse.
  • Allergies to pepper, Lolium, Olea or Salsola plant species, since come herbs or spices like saffron and cayenne can cause allergic reactions in susceptible people.

Here’s the bottom line on using natural appetite suppressants compared to other appetite suppressants: While weight loss pills, teas or other products may possibly give you a lift in energy, dulled appetite or temporarily elevated mood, they’re unlikely to result in any long-term weight loss, especially when you don’t make other healthy lifestyle changes. Focus on eating a well-rounded, nutrient-dense diet, preventing deficiencies in key vitamins or minerals, and staying active. Then you shouldn’t need to turn to weight loss products in the first place.

Final Thoughts on Natural Appetite Suppressants

  • Popular weight loss pills — like guarana, garcinia cambogia or ephedrine — are often used to suppress one’s appetite and help with weight loss. But it’s fairly common to experience some side effects when taking these products, including jitteriness, anxiety, trouble sleeping, indigestion, diarrhea, rapid heartbeat or headaches, which is why natural appetite suppressants are always better options.
  • Natural appetite suppressants include green tea extract, high-fiber foods, saffron extract, grapefruit essential oil and spices like cayenne.
  • These natural appetite suppressants, herbs, foods and compounds can help nip cravings by inducing thermogenesis, warming the body, balancing blood sugar levels, absorbing water in your digestive tract, reducing inflammation, improving your mood or energy, balancing hunger/fullness hormones like ghrelin and leptin, and altering release of certain digestive enzymes.

Read Next: 6 Natural & Safe Fat Burners, Plus Risks of Weight Loss Supplements

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GENERIC NAME(S): Saffron Extract

OTHER NAME(S): Saffron Extract Tablet

How to use Saffron

Consult your pharmacist.

Side Effects

Consult your pharmacist.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www.fda.gov/medwatch.

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.


Consult your pharmacist.


Consult your pharmacist.

Keep a list of all your medications with you, and share the list with your doctor and pharmacist.

If someone has overdosed and has serious symptoms such as passing out or trouble breathing, call 911. Otherwise, call a poison control center right away. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center.

Missed Dose

Consult your pharmacist.

Consult your pharmacist.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company for more details about how to safely discard your product.

Information last revised July 2016. Copyright(c) 2016 First Databank, Inc.

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CONDITIONS OF USE: The information in this database is intended to supplement, not substitute for, the expertise and judgment of healthcare professionals. The information is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, drug interactions or adverse effects, nor should it be construed to indicate that use of a particular drug is safe, appropriate or effective for you or anyone else. A healthcare professional should be consulted before taking any drug, changing any diet or commencing or discontinuing any course of treatment.

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Other Names:

Autumn Crocus, Azafrán, Azafron, Croci Stigma, Crocus Cultivé, Crocus sativus, Indian Saffron, Kashmira, Kesar, Kumkuma, Saffron Crocus, Safran, Safran Cultivé, Safran Espagnol, Safran des Indes, Safran Véritable, Spanish Saffron, True Saffron, .

See All Names Autumn Crocus, Azafrán, Azafron, Croci Stigma, Crocus Cultivé, Crocus sativus, Indian Saffron, Kashmira, Kesar, Kumkuma, Saffron Crocus, Safran, Safran Cultivé, Safran Espagnol, Safran des Indes, Safran Véritable, Spanish Saffron, True Saffron, Zafran.

SAFFRON Overview Information

Saffron is a plant. The dried stigmas (thread-like parts of the flower) are used to make saffron spice. It can take 75,000 saffron blossoms to produce a single pound of saffron spice. Saffron is largely cultivated and harvested by hand. Due to the amount of labor involved in harvesting, saffron is considered one of the world's most expensive spices. The stigmas are also used to make medicine.

How does it work?

There isn't enough information to know how saffron might work.

SAFFRON Uses & Effectiveness

Possibly Effective for:

  • Alzheimer’s disease. Some research shows that taking a specific saffron product (IMPIRAN, Iran) by mouth for 22 weeks might improve symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease about as well as the prescription drug donepezil (Aricept).
  • Depression. Taking specific saffron extracts (Novin Zaferan Co, Iran) by mouth seems to improve symptoms of major depression after 6-8 weeks of treatment. Some studies suggest that saffron might be as effective as taking a low-dose prescription antidepressant such as fluoxetine or imipramine.
  • Menstrual discomfort. Some research shows the taking a specific product containing saffron, anise, and celery seed (SCA, Gol Daro Herbal Medicine Laboratory) reduces pain during the menstrual cycle.
  • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Some research shows that taking a specific saffron extract (Department of Cultivation and Development of Institute of Medicinal Plants, Iran) improves symptoms of PMS after two menstrual cycles.

Insufficient Evidence for:

  • Asthma. Some early research suggests that drinking an herbal tea mixture containing saffron along with anise, black seed, caraway, cardamom, chamomile, fennel, and licorice may reduce asthma symptoms in people with allergic asthma.
  • Athletic performance. Some early research shows that taking a chemical from saffron called crocetin might decrease fatigue in men during exercise.
  • Erectile dysfunction. Some early research suggests that taking saffron might reduce erectile dysfunction and increase the number and duration of erections.
  • Male infertility. Some research suggests that saffron might improve sperm function in men. However, the research has been inconsistent.
  • Psoriasis. Some early research suggests that drinking saffron tea daily, along with a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, might reduce the severity of psoriasis.
  • Insomnia.
  • Cancer.
  • “Hardening of the arteries” (atherosclerosis).
  • Cough.
  • Stomach gas.
  • Early male orgasm (premature ejaculation).
  • Baldness.
  • Pain.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate saffron for these uses.
SAFFRON Side Effects & Safety

Saffron is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth as a medicine for up to 6 weeks. Some possible side effects include dry mouth, anxiety, dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, change in appetite, and headache. Allergic reactions can occur in some people.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

SAFFRON Interactions

We currently have no information for SAFFRON Interactions


The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

[Saffron for the mood]. Praxis (Bern.1994.) 6-29-2005;94(26-27):1090. View abstract.

Abdullaev, F. I. and Frenkel, G. D. Effect of saffron on cell colony formation and cellular nucleic acid and protein synthesis. Biofactors 1992;3(3):201-204. View abstract.

Abdullaev, F. I. and Frenkel, G. D. The effect of saffron on intracellular DNA, RNA and protein synthesis in malignant and non-malignant human cells. Biofactors 1992;4(1):43-45. View abstract.

Abdullaev, F. I. and Gonzalez, de Mejia. Inhibition of colony formation of Hela cells by naturally occurring and synthetic agents. Biofactors 1995;5(3):133-138. View abstract.

Abdullaev, F. I. Biological effects of saffron. Biofactors 1993;4(2):83-86. View abstract.

Abdullaev, F. I. Inhibitory effect of crocetin on intracellular nucleic acid and protein synthesis in malignant cells. Toxicol Lett. 2-1-1994;70(2):243-251. View abstract.

Abdullaev, F. I., Riveron-Negrete, L., Caballero-Ortega, H., Manuel, Hernandez J., Perez-Lopez, I., Pereda-Miranda, R., and Espinosa-Aguirre, J. J. Use of in vitro assays to assess the potential antigenotoxic and cytotoxic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Toxicol In Vitro 2003;17(5-6):731-736. View abstract.

Abdullaev, Jafarova F., Caballero-Ortega, H., Riveron-Negrete, L., Pereda-Miranda, R., Rivera-Luna, R., Manuel, Hernandez J., Perez-Lopez, I., and Espinosa-Aguirre, J. J. [In vitro evaluation of the chemopreventive potential of saffron]. Rev.Invest Clin 2002;54(5):430-436. View abstract.

Abe, K. and Saito, H. Effects of saffron extract and its constituent crocin on learning behaviour and long-term potentiation. Phytother.Res 2000;14(3):149-152. View abstract.

Abe, K., Sugiura, M., Shoyama, Y., and Saito, H. Crocin antagonizes ethanol inhibition of NMDA receptor-mediated responses in rat hippocampal neurons. Brain Res 3-16-1998;787(1):132-138. View abstract.

Abe, K., Sugiura, M., Yamaguchi, S., Shoyama, Y., and Saito, H. Saffron extract prevents acetaldehyde-induced inhibition of long-term potentiation in the rat dentate gyrus in vivo. Brain Res 12-18-1999;851(1-2):287-289.

Most adverse reactions included headache, dizziness, dry mouth, and GI complaints such as nausea and diarrhea.

Like GC Extra, this brand also features: 100% natural ingredients and extracts Made in the US No Side Effects Reported GREAT Customers Service Staff Quality & Reputation Of Garcinia Cambogia Plus Garcinia Cambogia Plus is manufactured by the company Vita Balance which is a leading health company both in the US and UK.

View abstract.

Ahmad, A. S., Ansari, M. A., Ahmad, M., Saleem, S., Yousuf, S., Hoda, M. N., and Islam, F. Neuroprotection by crocetin in a hemi-parkinsonian rat model. Pharmacol Biochem.Behav. 2005;81(4):805-813. View abstract.

Ahrazem, O., Rubio-Moraga, A., Lopez, R. C., and Gomez-Gomez, L. The expression of a chromoplast-specific lycopene beta cyclase gene is involved in the high production of saffron's apocarotenoid precursors. J Exp.Bot. 2010;61(1):105-119. View abstract.

Alonso GL, Varon R. Auto-oxidation of crocin and picrocrocin in saffron under different storage conditions. Bollettino Chimico Farmaceutico (Italy) 1993;132:116-120.

Alonso, G. L., Salinas, M. R., and Garijo, J. Method to determine the authenticity of aroma of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). J Food Prot. 1998;61(11):1525-1528. View abstract.

Asdaq, S. M. and Inamdar, M. N. Potential of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituent, crocin, as hypolipidemic and antioxidant in rats. Appl.Biochem.Biotechnol. 2010;162(2):358-372. View abstract.

Ashrafi, M., Bathaie, S. Z., Taghikhani, M., and Moosavi-Movahedi, A. A. The effect of carotenoids obtained from saffron on histone H1 structure and H1-DNA interaction. Int.J Biol.Macromol. 9-15-2005;36(4):246-252. View abstract.

Assimopoulou, A. N., Sinakos, Z., and Papageorgiou, V. P. Radical scavenging activity of Crocus sativus L. extract and its bioactive constituents. Phytother.Res 2005;19(11):997-1000. View abstract.

Aung, H. H., Wang, C. Z., Ni, M., Fishbein, A., Mehendale, S. R., Xie, J. T., Shoyama, C. Y., and Yuan, C. S. Crocin from Crocus sativus possesses significant anti-proliferation effects on human colorectal cancer cells. Exp.Oncol. 2007;29(3):175-180. View abstract.

Aytekin, A. and Acikgoz, A. O. Hormone and microorganism treatments in the cultivation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) plants. Molecules. 2008;13(5):1135-1147. View abstract.

Bakshi, H. A., Sam, S., Feroz, A., Ravesh, Z., Shah, G. A., and Sharma, M. Crocin from Kashmiri saffron (Crocus sativus) induces in vitro and in vivo xenograft growth inhibition of Dalton's lymphoma (DLA) in mice. Asian Pac.J Cancer Prev. 2009;10(5):887-890. View abstract.

Bathaie, S. Z., Bolhasani, A., Hoshyar, R., Ranjbar, B., Sabouni, F., and Moosavi-Movahedi, A. A. Interaction of saffron carotenoids as anticancer compounds with ctDNA, Oligo (dG.dC)15, and Oligo (dA.dT)15. DNA Cell Biol. 2007;26(8):533-540. View abstract.

BHAT, J. V. and BROKER, R. Riboflavine and thiamine contents of saffron, Crocus sativus linn. Nature 9-19-1953;172(4377):544. View abstract.

Bors, W., Saran, M., and Michel, C. Radical intermediates involved in the bleaching of the carotenoid crocin. Hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions and hydrated electrons. Int.J Radiat.Biol.Relat Stud.Phys.Chem.Med. 1982;41(5):493-501. View abstract.

Boskabady, M. H. and Aslani, M. R. Relaxant effect of Crocus sativus (saffron) on guinea-pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanisms. J Pharm Pharmacol 2006;58(10):1385-1390. View abstract.

Boskabady, M. H., Shafei, M. N., Shakiba, A., and Sefidi, H. S. Effect of aqueous-ethanol extract from Crocus sativus (saffron) on guinea-pig isolated heart. Phytother.Res 2008;22(3):330-334. View abstract.

Botsoglou, N. A., Florou-Paneri, P., Nikolakakis, I., Giannenas, I., Dotas, V., Botsoglou, E. N., and Aggelopoulos, S. Effect of dietary saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on the oxidative stability of egg yolk. Br.Poult.Sci. 2005;46(6):701-707. View abstract.

Bouvier, F., Suire, C., Mutterer, J., and Camara, B. Oxidative remodeling of chromoplast carotenoids: identification of the carotenoid dioxygenase CsCCD and CsZCD genes involved in Crocus secondary metabolite biogenesis. Plant Cell 2003;15(1):47-62. View abstract.

Cai, J., Yi, F. F., Bian, Z. Y., Shen, D. F., Yang, L., Yan, L., Tang, Q. Z., Yang, X. C., and Li, H. Crocetin protects against cardiac hypertrophy by blocking MEK-ERK1/2 signalling pathway. J Cell Mol.Med. 2009;13(5):909-925. View abstract.

Carmona, M., Zalacain, A., Pardo, J. E., Lopez, E., Alvarruiz, A., and Alonso, G. L. Influence of different drying and aging conditions on saffron constituents. J Agric.Food Chem. 5-18-2005;53(10):3974-3979. View abstract.

Carmona, M., Zalacain, A., Salinas, M. R., and Alonso, G. L. Generation of saffron volatiles by thermal carotenoid degradation. J Agric.Food Chem. 9-6-2006;54(18):6825-6834. View abstract.

Casas-Catalan, M. J. and Domenech-Carbo, M. T. Identification of natural dyes used in works of art by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry combined with in situ trimethylsilylation. Anal.Bioanal.Chem. 2005;382(2):259-268. View abstract.

Castillo, R., Fernandez, J. A., and Gomez-Gomez, L. Implications of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in apocarotenoid formation during the stigma development of Crocus sativus and its closer relatives. Plant Physiol 2005;139(2):674-689. View abstract.


Chatterjee, S., Poduval, T. B., Tilak, J. C., and Devasagayam, T. P. A modified, economic, sensitive method for measuring total antioxidant capacities of human plasma and natural compounds using Indian saffron (Crocus sativus). Clin Chim.Acta 2005;352(1-2):155-163. View abstract.

Chen, S. A., Wang, X., Zhao, B., Yuan, X., and Wang, Y. Production of crocin using Crocus sativus callus by two-stage culture system. Biotechnol.Lett. 2003;25(15):1235-1238. View abstract.

Chen, S. A., Zhao, B., Wang, X., Yuan, X., and Wang, Y. Promotion of the growth of Crocus sativus cells and the production of crocin by rare earth elements. Biotechnol.Lett. 2004;26(1):27-30. View abstract.

Chen, X., Krakauer, T., Oppenheim, J. J., and Howard, O. M. Yin zi huang, an injectable multicomponent chinese herbal medicine, is a potent inhibitor of T-cell activation. J Altern.Complement Med. 2004;10(3):519-526. View abstract.

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Dauria, M., Mauriello, G., Racioppi, R., and Rana, G. L. Use of SPME-GC-MS in the study of time evolution of the constituents of saffron aroma: modifications of the composition during storage. J Chromatogr.Sci. 2006;44(1):18-21. View abstract.

del Campo, C. P., Carmona, M., Maggi, L., Kanakis, C. D., Anastasaki, E. G., Tarantilis, P. A., Polissiou, M. G., and Alonso, G. L. Picrocrocin content and quality categories in different (345) worldwide samples of saffron ( Crocus sativus L.). J Agric.Food Chem. 1-27-2010;58(2):1305-1312. View abstract.

Dhar, A., Cherian, G., Dhar, G., Ray, G., Sharma, R., and Banerjee, S. K. Molecular basis of protective effect by crocetin on survival and liver tissue damage following hemorrhagic shock. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2005;278(1-2):139-146. View abstract.

Dhar, A., Mehta, S., Dhar, G., Dhar, K., Banerjee, S., Van Veldhuizen, P., Campbell, D. R., and Banerjee, S. K. Crocetin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and tumor progression in a xenograft mouse model. Mol.Cancer Ther. 2009;8(2):315-323. View abstract.

DiLuccio, R. C. and Gainer, J. L. Increasing alveolar oxygen transport. Aviat.Space Environ.Med. 1980;51(1):18-20. View abstract.

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el Daly, E. S. Protective effect of cysteine and vitamin E, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa extracts on cisplatin-induced toxicity in rats. J Pharm.Belg. 1998;53(2):87-93. View abstract.

Escribano, J., Alonso, G. L., Coca-Prados, M., and Fernandez, J. A. Crocin, safranal and picrocrocin from saffron (Crocus sativus L.) inhibit the growth of human cancer cells in vitro. Cancer Lett. 2-27-1996;100(1-2):23-30. View abstract.

Escribano, J., Diaz-Guerra, M. J., Riese, H. H., Alvarez, A., Proenza, R., and Fernandez, J. A. The cytolytic effect of a glycoconjugate extracted from corms of saffron plant (Crocus sativus) on human cell lines in culture. Planta Med. 2000;66(2):157-162. View abstract.

Escribano, J., Diaz-Guerra, M. J., Riese, H. H., Ontanon, J., Garcia-Olmo, D., Garcia-Olmo, D. C., Rubio, A., and Fernandez, J. A. In vitro activation of macrophages by a novel proteoglycan isolated from corms of Crocus sativus L. Cancer Lett. 9-20-1999;144(1):107-114. View abstract.

Escribano, J., Piqueras, A., Medina, J., Rubio, A., Alvarez-Orti, M., and Fernandez, J. A. Production of a cytotoxic proteoglycan using callus culture of saffron corms (Crocus sativus L.). J Biotechnol. 7-30-1999;73(1):53-59. View abstract.

Escribano, J., Rios, I., and Fernandez, J. A. Isolation and cytotoxic properties of a novel glycoconjugate from corms of saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.). Biochim.Biophys.Acta 1-4-1999;1426(1):217-222. View abstract.

Escribano, J., Rubio, A., Alvarez-Orti, M., Molina, A., and Fernandez, J. A. Purification and characterization of a mannan-binding lectin specifically expressed in corms of saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.). J Agric.Food Chem. 2000;48(2):457-463. View abstract.

Fatehi, M., Rashidabady, T., and Fatehi-Hassanabad, Z. Effects of Crocus sativus petals' extract on rat blood pressure and on responses induced by electrical field stimulation in the rat isolated vas deferens and guinea-pig ileum. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;84(2-3):199-203. View abstract.

Feizzadeh, B., Afshari, J. T., Rakhshandeh, H., Rahimi, A., Brook, A., and Doosti, H. Cytotoxic effect of saffron stigma aqueous extract on human transitional cell carcinoma and mouse fibroblast. Urol.J 2008;5(3):161-167. View abstract.

Fernandez, J. A., Escribano, J., Piqueras, A., and Medina, J. A glycoconjugate from corms of saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.) inhibits root growth and affects in vitro cell viability. J Exp.Bot. 2000;51(345):731-737. View abstract.

Ferrence, S. C. and Bendersky, G. Therapy with saffron and the goddess at Thera. Perspect.Biol.Med. 2004;47(2):199-226. View abstract.

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Frederico, D., Donate, P. M., Constantino, M. G., Bronze, E. S., and Sairre, M. I. A short and efficient synthesis of crocetin-dimethylester and crocetindial. J Org Chem. 11-14-2003;68(23):9126-9128. View abstract.

Gainer, J. L. and Jones, J. R. The use of crocetin in experimental atherosclerosis. Experientia 5-15-1975;31(5):548-549. View abstract.

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Gainer, J. L., Stennett, A. K., and Murray, R. J. The effect of trans sodium crocetinate (TSC) in a rat oleic acid model of acute lung injury. Pulm.Pharmacol Ther. 2005;18(3):213-216. View abstract.

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Gainer, J. V., Jr. and Nugent, R. Effect of increasing the plasma oxygen diffusivity on experimental cryogenic edema. J Neurosurg. 1976;45(5):535-538. View abstract.

Gainer, J. V., Jr. Use of crocetin in experimental spinal cord injury. J Neurosurg. 1977;46(3):358-360. View abstract.

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Garcia-Olmo, D. C., Riese, H. H., Escribano, J., Ontanon, J., Fernandez, J. A., Atienzar, M., and Garcia-Olmo, D. Effects of long-term treatment of colon adenocarcinoma with crocin, a carotenoid from saffron (Crocus sativus L.): an experimental study in the rat. Nutr.Cancer 1999;35(2):120-126. View abstract.

Ge, R. Y., Zhou, C. H., and She, Y. C. Influences of Stigma Croci and Semen Persicae on function of ovary-uterus in pseudopregnant rats.

If our leaders are spiritually strong then we shall have an honest and transparent system of government.

J Tradit.Chin Med. 1983;3(1):23-26. View abstract.

Ghazavi, A., Mosayebi, G., Salehi, H., and Abtahi, H. Effect of ethanol extract of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on the inhibition of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57bl/6 mice. Pak.J Biol.Sci. 5-1-2009;12(9):690-695. View abstract.

Giassi, L. J., Gilchrist, M. J., Graham, M. C., and Gainer, J. L. Trans-sodium crocetinate restores blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma lactate after hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma 2001;51(5):932-938. View abstract.

Giassi, L. J., Poynter, A. K., and Gainer, J. L. Trans sodium crocetinate for hemorrhagic shock: effect of time delay in initiating therapy. Shock 2002;18(6):585-588. View abstract.

Goyal, S. N., Arora, S., Sharma, A. K., Joshi, S., Ray, R., Bhatia, J., Kumari, S., and Arya, D. S. Preventive effect of crocin of Crocus sativus on hemodynamic, biochemical, histopathological and ultrastuctural alterations in isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Phytomedicine. 2010;17(3-4):227-232. View abstract.

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Hasani-Ranjbar, S., Larijani, B., and Abdollahi, M. A systematic review of the potential herbal sources of future drugs effective in oxidant-related diseases. Inflamm.Allergy Drug Targets. 2009;8(1):2-10. View abstract.

He, S. Y., Qian, Z. Y., Tang, F. T., Wen, N., Xu, G. L., and Sheng, L. Effect of crocin on experimental atherosclerosis in quails and its mechanisms. Life Sci. 7-8-2005;77(8):907-921. View abstract.

Holloway, G. M. and Gainer, J. L. The carotenoid crocetin enhances pulmonary oxygenation. J Appl.Physiol 1988;65(2):683-686. View abstract.

Hoshyar, R., Bathaie, S. Z., and Ashrafi, M. Interaction of safranal and picrocrocin with ctDNA and their preferential mechanisms of binding to GC- and AT-rich oligonucleotides. DNA Cell Biol. 2008;27(12):665-673. View abstract.

Hosseinzadeh, H. and Ghenaati, J. Evaluation of the antitussive effect of stigma and petals of saffron (Crocus sativus) and its components, safranal and crocin in guinea pigs. Fitoterapia 2006;77(6):446-448. View abstract.

Hosseinzadeh, H. and Jahanian, Z. Effect of crocus sativus L. (saffron) stigma and its constituents, crocin and safranal, on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice. Phytother.Res 2010;24(5):726-730. View abstract.

Hosseinzadeh, H. and Noraei, N. B. Anxiolytic and hypnotic effect of Crocus sativus aqueous extract and its constituents, crocin and safranal, in mice. Phytother.Res 2009;23(6):768-774. View abstract.

Hosseinzadeh, H. and Sadeghnia, H. R. Protective effect of safranal on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in the rat: involvement of GABAergic and opioids systems. Phytomedicine. 2007;14(4):256-262. View abstract.

Hosseinzadeh, H. and Sadeghnia, H. R. Safranal, a constituent of Crocus sativus (saffron), attenuated cerebral ischemia induced oxidative damage in rat hippocampus. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2005;8(3):394-399. View abstract.

Hosseinzadeh, H. and Talebzadeh, F. Anticonvulsant evaluation of safranal and crocin from Crocus sativus in mice. Fitoterapia 2005;76(7-8):722-724. View abstract.

Hosseinzadeh, H. and Younesi, H. M. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Crocus sativus L. stigma and petal extracts in mice. BMC.Pharmacol 3-15-2002;2:7. View abstract.

Hosseinzadeh, H., Abootorabi, A., and Sadeghnia, H. R. Protective effect of Crocus sativus stigma extract and crocin (trans-crocin 4) on methyl methanesulfonate-induced DNA damage in mice organs. DNA Cell Biol. 2008;27(12):657-664. View abstract.

Hosseinzadeh, H., Modaghegh, M. H., and Saffari, Z. Crocus sativus L. (Saffron) extract and its active constituents (crocin and safranal) on ischemia-reperfusion in rat skeletal muscle. Evid.Based.Complement Alternat.Med. 2009;6(3):343-350. View abstract.

Hosseinzadeh, H., Sadeghnia, H. R., and Rahimi, A. Effect of safranal on extracellular hippocampal levels of glutamate and aspartate during kainic Acid treatment in anesthetized rats. Planta Med. 2008;74(12):1441-1445. View abstract.

Hosseinzadeh, H., Sadeghnia, H. R., Ziaee, T., and Danaee, A. Protective effect of aqueous saffron extract (Crocus sativus L.) and crocin, its active constituent, on renal ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative damage in rats. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2005;8(3):387-393. View abstract.

Hosseinzadeh, H., Ziaee, T., and Sadeghi, A. The effect of saffron, Crocus sativus stigma, extract and its constituents, safranal and crocin on sexual behaviors in normal male rats. Phytomedicine. 2008;15(6-7):491-495. View abstract.

Imenshahidi, M., Hosseinzadeh, H., and Javadpour, Y. Hypotensive effect of aqueous saffron extract (Crocus sativus L.) and its constituents, safranal and crocin, in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Phytother.Res 12-9-2009; View abstract.

Jagadeeswaran, R., Thirunavukkarasu, C., Gunasekaran, P., Ramamurty, N., and Sakthisekaran, D. In vitro studies on the selective cytotoxic effect of crocetin and quercetin. Fitoterapia 2000;71(4):395-399. View abstract.

Jalali-Heravi, M., Parastar, H., and Ebrahimi-Najafabadi, H. Characterization of volatile components of Iranian saffron using factorial-based response surface modeling of ultrasonic extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. J Chromatogr.A 8-14-2009;1216(33):6088-6097. View abstract.

Jalali-Heravi, M., Parastar, H., and Ebrahimi-Najafabadi, H. Self-modeling curve resolution techniques applied to comparative analysis of volatile components of Iranian saffron from different regions. Anal.Chim.Acta 3-10-2010;662(2):143-154. View abstract.

Jessie, S. W. and Krishnakantha, T. P. Inhibition of human platelet aggregation and membrane lipid peroxidation by food spice, saffron. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2005;278(1-2):59-63. View abstract.

Joukar, S., Najafipour, H., Khaksari, M., Sepehri, G., Shahrokhi, N., Dabiri, S., Gholamhoseinian, A., and Hasanzadeh, S. The effect of saffron consumption on biochemical and histopathological heart indices of rats with myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc.Toxicol 2010;10(1):66-71. View abstract.

Kakehi, K., Kinoshita, M., Oda, Y., and Abdul-Rahman, B. Lectin from bulbs of Crocus sativus recognizing N-linked core glycan: isolation and binding studies using fluorescence polarization. Methods Enzymol. 2003;362:512-522. View abstract.

Kanakis, C. D., Daferera, D. J., Tarantilis, P. A., and Polissiou, M. G. Qualitative determination of volatile compounds and quantitative evaluation of safranal and 4-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde (HTCC) in Greek saffron. J Agric.Food Chem. 7-14-2004;52(14):4515-4521. View abstract.

Kanakis, C. D., Tarantilis, P. A., Pappas, C., Bariyanga, J., Tajmir-Riahi, H. A., and Polissiou, M. G. An overview of structural features of DNA and RNA complexes with saffron compounds: Models and antioxidant activity. J Photochem.Photobiol.B 6-3-2009;95(3):204-212. View abstract.

Kanakis, C. D., Tarantilis, P. A., Tajmir-Riahi, H. A., and Polissiou, M. G. Crocetin, dimethylcrocetin, and safranal bind human serum albumin: stability and antioxidative properties. J Agric.Food Chem. 2-7-2007;55(3):970-977. View abstract.

Kanakis, C. D., Tarantilis, P. A., Tajmir-Riahi, H. A., and Polissiou, M. G. DNA interaction with saffron's secondary metabolites safranal, crocetin, and dimethylcrocetin. DNA Cell Biol. 2007;26(1):63-70. View abstract.

Kandeler, R. and Ullrich, W. R. Symbolism of plants: examples of European-Mediterranean culture presented with biology and history of art. J Exp.Bot. 2009;60(1):6-8. View abstract.

Kanofsky, J. R. and Sima, P. D. Girard's reagent P derivative of beta-Apo-8'-carotenal: a potent photoprotective agent. Photochem.Photobiol. 2001;73(4):349-358. View abstract.

Kazi, H. A. and Qian, Z. Crocetin reduces TNBS-induced experimental colitis in mice by downregulation of NFkB. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2009;15(3):181-187. View abstract.

Keyhani, E. and Keyhani, J. Comparative study of superoxide dismutase activity assays in Crocus sativus L. corms. Prikl.Biokhim.Mikrobiol. 2006;42(1):111-116. View abstract.

Khalili, M, Roghani, M, and Ekhlasi, M. The Effect of Aqueous Crocus sativus L. Extract on Intracerebroventricular Streptozotocin-induced Cognitive Deficits in Rat: a Behavioral Analysis. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 2009;8:185-191.

Khorasani, G., Hosseinimehr, S. J., Zamani, P., Ghasemi, M., and Ahmadi, A. The effect of saffron (Crocus sativus) extract for healing of second-degree burn wounds in rats. Keio J Med. 2008;57(4):190-195. View abstract.

Kim, Y. S., Kim, J. J., Cho, K. H., Jung, W. S., Moon, S. K., Park, E. K., and Kim, D. H. Biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1, crocin, amygdalin, geniposide, puerarin, ginsenoside Re, hesperidin, poncirin, glycyrrhizin, and baicalin by human fecal microflora and its relation to cytotoxicity against tumor cells. J Microbiol.Biotechnol. 2008;18(6):1109-1114. View abstract.

Koyama, A., Ohmori, Y., Fujioka, N., Miyagawa, H., Yamasaki, K., and Kohda, H. Formation of Stigma-Like Structures and Pigment in Cultured Tissues of Crocus sativus. Planta Med. 1988;54(4):375-376. View abstract.

Laabich, A., Vissvesvaran, G. P., Lieu, K. L., Murata, K., McGinn, T. E., Manmoto, C. C., Sinclair, J. R., Karliga, I., Leung, D. W., Fawzi, A., and Kubota, R. Protective effect of crocin against blue light- and white light-mediated photoreceptor cell death in bovine and primate retinal primary cell culture. Invest Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci. 2006;47(7):3156-3163. View abstract.

Leung, Y. K. and Ho, J. W. Effects of vitamins and common drugs on reduction of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in rat microsomes. Arch.Physiol Biochem. 2001;109(2):175-179. View abstract.

Li, C. Y. and Wu, T. S. Constituents of the pollen of Crocus sativus L. and their tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Chem.Pharm Bull.(Tokyo) 2002;50(10):1305-1309. View abstract.

Li, C. Y. and Wu, T. S. Constituents of the stigmas of Crocus sativus and their tyrosinase inhibitory activity. J Nat.Prod. 2002;65(10):1452-1456. View abstract.

Li, C. Y., Lee, E. J., and Wu, T. S. Antityrosinase principles and constituents of the petals of Crocus sativus. J Nat.Prod. 2004;67(3):437-440. View abstract.

Li, N., Lin, G., Kwan, Y. W., and Min, Z. D. Simultaneous quantification of five major biologically active ingredients of saffron by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr.A 7-23-1999;849(2):349-355. View abstract.

Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, M. and Skubas, A. I. Characterization of the platelet aggregation inducer and inhibitor isolated from Crocus sativus. Biochem.Int. 1990;22(1):103-110. View abstract.

Liu, T. Z. and Qian, Z. Y. [Pharmacokinetics of crocetin in rats]. Yao Xue.Xue.Bao. 2002;37(5):367-369. View abstract.

Liu, Y., Long, Y., Zhu, L., Cao, G., and Zhong, Z. [Physiological and ecological effects of potassium on expansion of crocus corm]. Ying.Yong.Sheng Tai Xue.Bao. 2004;15(4):663-666. View abstract.

Lopez, R. C. and Gomez-Gomez, L. Isolation of a new fungi and wound-induced chitinase class in corms of Crocus sativus. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2009;47(5):426-434. View abstract.

Lucas, C. D., Hallagan, J. B., and Taylor, S. L. The role of natural color additives in food allergy. Adv.Food Nutr.Res 2001;43:195-216. View abstract.

Lv, C. F., Luo, C. L., Ji, H. Y., and Zhao, P. [Influence of crocin on gene expression profile of human bladder cancer cell lines T24]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2008;33(13):1612-1617. View abstract.

Ma SP, Liu BL. Pharmacological studies of glycosides of saffron crocus (Crocus sativus): effects on blood coagulation, platelet aggregation, and thrombosis. Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs (China) 1999;30:196-198.

Maccarone, R., Di Marco, S., and Bisti, S. Saffron supplement maintains morphology and function after exposure to damaging light in mammalian retina. Invest Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci. 2008;49(3):1254-1261. View abstract.

Magesh, V., DurgaBhavani, K., Senthilnathan, P., Rajendran, P., and Sakthisekaran, D. In vivo protective effect of crocetin on benzo(a)pyrene-induced lung cancer in Swiss albino mice. Phytother.Res 2009;23(4):533-539. View abstract.

Magesh, V., Singh, J. P., Selvendiran, K., Ekambaram, G., and Sakthisekaran, D. Antitumour activity of crocetin in accordance to tumor incidence, antioxidant status, drug metabolizing enzymes and histopathological studies. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2006;287(1-2):127-135. View abstract.

Maggi, L., Carmona, M., Zalacain, A., Tome, M. M., Murcia, M. A., and Alonso, G. L. Parabens as agents for improving crocetin esters' shelf-life in aqueous saffron extracts. Molecules. 2009;14(3):1160-1170. View abstract.

Martin, G., Goh, E., and Neff, A. W. Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of crocetin on Xenopus. Food Chem.Toxicol 2002;40(7):959-964. View abstract.

Martinez, F. V., Munoz Pamplona, M. P., Urzaiz, A. G., and Garcia, E. C. Occupational airborne contact dermatitis from saffron bulbs. Contact Dermatitis 2007;57(4):284-285. View abstract.

Martins, M. L., Martins, H. M., and Bernardo, F. Aflatoxins in spices marketed in Portugal. Food Addit.Contam 2001;18(4):315-319. View abstract.

Mathews-Roth, M. M. Effect of crocetin on experimental skin tumors in hairless mice.

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Oncology 1982;39(6):362-364. View abstract.

Miyakoshi, J., Tsukada, T., Tachiiri, S., Bandoh, S., Yamaguchi, K., and Takebe, H. Enhanced NOR-1 gene expression by exposure of Chinese hamster cells to high-density 50 Hz magnetic fields. Mol.Cell Biochem. 1998;181(1-2):191-195. View abstract.

Modaghegh, M. H., Shahabian, M., Esmaeili, H. A., Rajbai, O., and Hosseinzadeh, H. Safety evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus) tablets in healthy volunteers. Phytomedicine. 2008;15(12):1032-1037. View abstract.

Molnar, J., Szabo, D., Pusztai, R., Mucsi, I., Berek, L., Ocsovszki, I., Kawata, E., and Shoyama, Y. Membrane associated antitumor effects of crocine-, ginsenoside- and cannabinoid derivates. Anticancer Res 2000;20(2A):861-867. View abstract.

Moneret-Vautrin, D. A., Morisset, M., Lemerdy, P., Croizier, A., and Kanny, G. Food allergy and IgE sensitization caused by spices: CICBAA data (based on 589 cases of food allergy). Allerg.Immunol.(Paris) 2002;34(4):135-140. View abstract.

Moraga, A. R., Mozos, A. T., Ahrazem, O., and Gomez-Gomez, L. Cloning and characterization of a glucosyltransferase from Crocus sativus stigmas involved in flavonoid glucosylation. BMC.Plant Biol. 2009;9:109. View abstract.

Moraga, A. R., Nohales, P. F., Perez, J. A., and Gomez-Gomez, L. Glucosylation of the saffron apocarotenoid crocetin by a glucosyltransferase isolated from Crocus sativus stigmas. Planta 2004;219(6):955-966. View abstract.

Moraga, A. R., Rambla, J. L., Ahrazem, O., Granell, A., and Gomez-Gomez, L. Metabolite and target transcript analyses during Crocus sativus stigma development. Phytochemistry 2009;70(8):1009-1016. View abstract.

Morgan, T. J., Venkatesh, B., Crerar-Gilbert, A., Willgoss, D., and Endre, Z. H. Sodium crocetinate does not alter gut hypercapnic responses or renal energy stores during transient sub-diaphragmatic ischaemia. Intensive Care Med. 2003;29(4):652-654. View abstract.

Moshiri, E., Basti, A. A., Noorbala, A. A., Jamshidi, A. H., Hesameddin, Abbasi S., and Akhondzadeh, S. Crocus sativus L. (petal) in the treatment of mild-to-moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial. Phytomedicine. 2006;13(9-10):607-611. View abstract.

Mousavi, S. H., Tavakkol-Afshari, J., Brook, A., and Jafari-Anarkooli, I. Role of caspases and Bax protein in saffron-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Food Chem.Toxicol 2009;47(8):1909-1913. View abstract.

Mousavi, S. H., Tayarani, N. Z., and Parsaee, H. Protective effect of saffron extract and crocin on reactive oxygen species-mediated high glucose-induced toxicity in PC12 cells. Cell Mol.Neurobiol. 2010;30(2):185-191. View abstract.

Naghizadeh, B., Boroushaki, M. T., Vahdati, Mashhadian N., and Mansouri, M. T. Protective effects of crocin against cisplatin-induced acute renal failure and oxidative stress in rats. Iran Biomed.J 2008;12(2):93-100. View abstract.

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